To study the various pain assessment tools based on their psychometric properties and ease of use.
Published articles on psychometric properties of pain tools were accessed and data collected for low back pain (LBP)-specific tools, generic tools, neuropathic LBP tools, tools for cognitively impaired patients, and tools for acute LBP.
Among the LBP-specific tools, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) have good construct validity and reliability, and responsiveness over short intervals. Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QBPDS) gauges only disability and sleep. Among the generic tools, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) show good responsiveness, but BPI is the only tool validated for LBP. Neuropathic Pain Scale (NPS) and Short Form-MPQ-2 (SF-MPQ-2) are both reliable tools for neuropathic LBP. For cognitively impaired patients, Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD), Abbey Pain Scale (APS), and Doloplus-2 are all reliable tools, but PAINAD has good construct validity. For acute pain, Clinically Aligned Pain Assessment (CAPA) is reliable and responsive, but presently, unidimensional tools and SF-MPQ-2 are the tools most preferred.
Based on psychometric properties and ease of use, the best tools for LBP seem to be RMDQ/ODI (among LBP-specific tools), BPI (among generic tools), SF-MPQ-2/NPS (for neuropathic LBP), PAINAD (for cognitively impaired patients), and unidimensional tools and SF-MPQ-2 (for acute pain). Overall, BPI seems to be a tool that can be relied upon the most.
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Abbey Pain Scale
Brief Pain Inventory
Clinically Aligned Pain Assessment
After the French investigator who developed the tool
Faces Pain Scale
West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory
McGill Pain Questionnaire
Million’s Visual Analogue Scale
The North American Spine Society Lumbar Spine Outcome
Neuropathic Pain Scale
Oswestry Disability Index
Numerical Rating Scale
Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia
Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale
Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire
Visual Analogue Scale/Graphic Rating Scale
Verbal Rating Scale
Waddell Disability Index
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We thank Turacoz Healthcare Solutions (www.turacoz.com), Gurugram, India for writing support.
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Garg, A., Pathak, H., Churyukanov, M.V. et al. Low back pain: critical assessment of various scales. Eur Spine J 29, 503–518 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-06279-5
- Low back pain tools
- Psychometric properties