Psychometric validation of the cross-culturally adapted traditional Chinese version of the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ)

  • Prudence Wing Hang Cheung
  • Carlos King Ho Wong
  • Jason Pui Yin Cheung
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) into traditional Chinese for their use in patients experiencing low back pain (LBP).

Methods

This was a prospective questionnaire translation and psychometric validation of the BBQ and FABQ in Chinese patients with back pain. Patients also completed the Traditional Chinese (Hong Kong) versions of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2) questionnaires and the visual analogue scale (VAS) for LBP. Construct validity was assessed using Spearman’s correlation test against the subscales and domains with similar constructs. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha (α). Sensitivity was determined by known-group comparisons.

Results

A total of 100 patients were recruited. Both BBQ (α = 0.810) and FABQ (α = 0.859) demonstrated excellent overall internal consistency. BBQ scores significantly correlated with ODI scores, VAS-LBP and all domains of SF-12v2 (p < 0.01–0.05), whereas only FABQ Work subscale correlated with ODI scores (p < 0.01) and VAS-LBP (p < 0.05). Both FABQ subscales correlated with only specific domains of SF-12v2 (p < 0.01–0.05). FABQ-W was sensitive to difference between patients with acute versus chronic back pain.

Conclusions

Both the adapted BBQ and FABQ (Traditional Chinese-Hong Kong) were demonstrated to have satisfactory psychometric properties, with adequate internal consistencies, construct validity and sensitivity to certain clinical parameters. Our findings were based on a clinically relevant patient group and provides insight into patients’ own perception of back pain which may often be different from that of surgeons. This is a platform for future cross-cultural comparisons.

Level of evidence

2.

Graphical abstract

These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

Keywords

Psychometrics Low back pain BBQ FABQ 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Supplementary material

586_2018_5576_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (190 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 190 kb)
586_2018_5576_MOESM2_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 21 kb)
586_2018_5576_MOESM3_ESM.docx (24 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 25 kb)
586_2018_5576_MOESM4_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (DOCX 26 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyThe University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary HospitalHong Kong SARChina
  2. 2.Department of Family Medicine and Primary CareThe University of Hong KongHong Kong SARChina

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