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Is physiotherapy integrated virtual walking effective on pain, function, and kinesiophobia in patients with non-specific low-back pain? Randomised controlled trial



According to literature, virtual reality was found to reduce pain and kinesiophobia in patients with chronic pain. The purpose of the study was to investigate short-term effect of the virtual reality on pain, function, and kinesiophobia in patients with subacute and chronic non-specific low-back pain


This randomised controlled study in which 44 patients were randomly assigned to the traditional physiotherapy (control group, 22 subjects) or virtual walking integrated physiotherapy (experimental group, 22 subjects). Before and after treatment, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), TAMPA Kinesiophobia Scale (TKS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Timed-up and go Test (TUG), 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and Single-Leg Balance Test were assessed. The interaction effect between group and time was assessed by using repeated-measures analysis of covariance.


After treatment, both groups showed improvement in all parameters. However, VAS, TKS, TUG, and 6MWT scores showed significant differences in favor of the experimental group.


Virtual walking integrated physiotherapy reduces pain and kinesiophobia, and improved function in patients with subacute and chronic non-specific low-back pain in short term.

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Correspondence to Gul Deniz Yilmaz Yelvar.

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Yilmaz Yelvar, G.D., Çırak, Y., Dalkılınç, M. et al. Is physiotherapy integrated virtual walking effective on pain, function, and kinesiophobia in patients with non-specific low-back pain? Randomised controlled trial. Eur Spine J 26, 538–545 (2017).

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  • Low-back pain
  • Physiotherapy
  • Virtual reality
  • Virtual walking
  • Kinesiophobia
  • Function