Advertisement

European Spine Journal

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 3146–3153 | Cite as

Electrophysiological and histological changes of paraspinal muscles in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

  • I. StetkarovaEmail author
  • J. Zamecnik
  • V. Bocek
  • P. Vasko
  • K. Brabec
  • M. Krbec
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

The pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains poorly understood. To date, potentially involved local changes in the deep paraspinal muscles still remain unknown.

Methods

Needle electromyography (EMG) and muscle biopsy of paraspinal muscles at convexity and concavity of the AIS main thoracic curve were performed in 25 subjects. In this group, EMG was performed in 16 AIS subjects (12 females, 12–27 years), muscle biopsy in 18 AIS subjects (15 females, 11–31 years) compared to 10 non-scoliotic controls (6 females, 12–55 years). Samples of muscle tissue were removed during corrective surgery and were examined histologically, enzyme histochemically and immunohistochemically. Both methods of EMG and muscle biopsy were performed in 9 subjects (7 women, 12–27 years).

Results

Right curve convexity was found in 24 AIS subjects. Amplitudes of motor unit action potentials (MUPs) were significantly increased on the AIS curve convexity versus concavity. Turns, duration and phases of MUPs were without any significant changes. In all 18 subjects, the histological examination revealed muscle fiber redistribution with numerical predominance of type I on the curve convexity which strongly correlated with the progression of the Cobb angle.

Conclusion

Our findings demonstrate significant changes of muscle fiber redistribution in the paraspinal muscles of AIS with increased proportion of type I on the convexity corresponding to a significantly higher amplitude of MUPs on the same side. A possible explanation of this alteration is a secondary adaptation due to chronic high load demand.

Keywords

Idiopathic scoliosis Muscle biopsy Neurophysiology EMG Paraspinal muscles 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Supported by the Czech Research Grant Projects: PRVOUK P34, IGA NT 13693 and 260168/SVV/2015. The authors express their gratitude to ing. Marcela Pavlíková for her statistical advice.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Burwell RG (2003) Aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current concepts. Pediatr Rehabil 6:137–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yaman O, Dalbayrak S (2014) Idiopathic scoliosis. Turk Neurosurg 24:646–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang WJ, Yeung HY, Chu WCW, Tang NLS, Lee KM, Qui Y, Burwell RG, Cheng JCY (2011) Top theories for the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop 31:S14–S27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hawasli AH, Hullar TE, Dorward IG (2015) Idiopathic scoliosis and the vestibular system. Eur Spine J 24:227–233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doménech J, Garcia-Martí G, Martí-Bonmatí L, Barrios C, Tormos JM, Pascual-Leone A (2011) Abnormal activation of the motor cortical network in idiopathic scoliosis demonstrated by functional MRI. Eur Spine J 20:1069–1078CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Girardo M, Bettini N, Dema E, Cervellati S (2011) The role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Eur Spine J 20:S68–S74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Potoupnis M, Kapetanos G, Kimiskidis VK, Symeonides PP (2002) Is the central nervous system a causative factor in idiopathic scoliosis? Stud Health Technol Inform 91:10–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kong Y, Shi L, Hui SC, Wang D, Deng M, Chu WC, Cheng JC (2014) Variation in anisotropy and diffusivity along the medulla oblongata and the whole spinal cord in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a pilot study using diffusion tensor imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 35:1621–1627CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Joly O, Rousié D, Jissendi P, Rousié M, Franko E (2014) A new approach to corpus callosum anomalies in idiopathic scoliosis using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Spine J 23:2643–2649CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Doménech J, Tormos JM, Barrios B, Pascual-Leone A (2010) Motor cortical hyperexcitability in idiopathic scoliosis: could focal dystonia be a subclinical etiological factor? Eur Spine J 19:223–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cheung J, Halbertsma JP, Veldhuizen AG, Sluiter WJ, Nm Maurits, Cool JC, van Horn JR (2005) A preliminary study on electromyographic analysis of the paraspinal musculature in idiopathic scoliosis. Eur Spine J 14:130–137CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    De Oliveira AS, Gianini PE, Camarini PM, Bevilaqua-Grossi D (2011) Electromyographic analysis of paravertebral muscles in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 36:E334–E339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gonyea WJ, Moore-Woodard C, Moseley B, Hollmann M, Wenger D (1985) An evaluation of muscle pathology in idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop 5:323–329CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sahgal V, Shah A, Flanagan N, Schaffer M, Kane W, Subramani V, Singh H (1983) Morphologic and morphometric studies of muscle in idiopathic scoliosis. Acta Orthop Scand 54:242–251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Meier MP, Klein MP, Krebs D, Grob D, Müntener M (1997) Fiber transformations in multifidus muscle of young patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 22:2357–2364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mannion AF, Meier M, Grob D, Müntener M (1998) Paraspinal muscle fibre type alterations associated with scoliosis: an old problem revisited with new evidence. Eur Spine J 7:289–293CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sheehan DC, Hrapchak BB (1987) Theory and practice of histotechnology, 2nd edn. Mosby, ColumbusGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lowe TG, Edgar M, Margulies JY, Miller NH, Raso VJ, Reinker KA, Rivard CH (2000) Etiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current trends in research. J Bone Joint Surg Am A 82:1157–1168Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zetterberg C, Björk R, Ortengren R, Andersson GB (1984) Electromyography of the paravertebral muscles in idiopathic scoliosis. Measurements of amplitude and spectral changes under load. Acta Orthop Scand 55:304–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Farahpour N, Younesian H, Bahrpeyma F (2015) Electromyographic activity of erector spinae and external oblique musles during trunk lateral bending and axial rotation in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and healthy subjects. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 30:411–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cheung J, Veldhuizen AG, Halbertsma JP, Maurits NM, Sluiter WJ, Cool JC, van Horn JR (2004) The relation between electromyography and growth velocity of the spine in the evaluation of curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 29:1011–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gaudreault N, Arsenault AB, Lariviére C, DeSerres SJ, Rivard CH (2005) Assessment of the paraspinal muscles of subjects presenting an idiopathic scoliosis: an EMG pilot study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 10:6–14Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boyd-Clard LC, Briggs CA, Galea MP (2001) Comparative histochemical composition of muscle fibres in a pre- and a postvertebral muscle of the cervical spine. J Anat 199:709–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mannion AF, Dumas GA, Cooper RG, Espinosa FJ, Faris MW, Stevenson JM (1997) Muscle fibre size and type distribution in thoracic and lumbar regions of erector spinae in healthy subjects without low back pain: normal values and sex differences. J Anat 190:505–513CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Stetkarova
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Zamecnik
    • 2
  • V. Bocek
    • 1
  • P. Vasko
    • 1
  • K. Brabec
    • 1
  • M. Krbec
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Third Faculty of MedicineCharles University in Prague and Faculty Hospital Kralovske VinohradyPrague 10Czech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, 2nd Faculty of MedicineCharles University in Prague and Motol University HospitalPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, 3rd Faculty of MedicineCharles University in Prague and Faculty Hospital Královské VinohradyPragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations