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Table 2 Methodological quality score of the 17 studies (Studies are ranked according to their total scores and, in cases of equal ranking, in alphabetical order of the first author’s surname)

From: The association between physical activity and neck and low back pain: a systematic review

Quality item/Study 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Total score (%)
Cohort study
 Wedderkopp et al. [47] + + ? + + + + + +   + + + + + + 14/16 (88)
 van den Heuvel et al. [41] + + ? +   + + + + + + + 10/16 (62)
 Mikkelsson et al. [33] + + + +   + + + + + 9/16 (56)
 Picavet and Schuit [37] + + +   + ? + + + + 8/16 (50)
 Hartvigsen and Christensen [17] + ? ? + ? + ?   + + + + ? 7/16 (44)
Cross-sectional study
 Auvinen et al. [4] + +   + + + +    + + + + + 11/14 (78)
 Auvinen et al. [5] + +   + + + +    + + + + + 11/14 (78)
 Heneweer et al. [20] + ?   + + + + +    + + + + + 11/14 (78)
 Østerås et al. [36] + + +   + + +    + + + + + 11/14 (78)
 Björck-van Dijken et al. [6] + +   + ? + + + ?    ? + + + + 10/14 (71)
 Sjolie [39] + + +   + + +    + + + + ? 10/14 (71)
 Diepenmaat et al. [14] + ? +   ? + ? + +    + + + ? + 9/14 (64)
 Brown et al. [9] + +   ? + + +    + + + ? 8/14 (57)
 Kujala et al. [29] + + ?   + + + +    + + ? ? 8/14 (57)
 Wedderkopp et al. [46] + + +   + + + +    + ? ? 8/14 (57)
 Jacob et al. [24] +   + + + +    + + ? 7/14 (50)
 Andersen et al. [3] + +   + ? + +    ? + ? ? 6/14 (43)