Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 1101–1106 | Cite as

Real-time oxidative stress biomarkers measured in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis—an electron paramagnetic resonance study

  • Julieta GerenovaEmail author
  • Galina Nikollova
  • Yanka Karamalakova
  • Veselina Gadjeva
Original Article


Although the role of presence of thyroid dysfunction for overproduction of free radicals has been elucidated, the data about the role of autoimmunity in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) to sustain the presence of oxidative stress despite the normal serum thyroid hormone levels are scarce. The present study aimed by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) methods to elucidate the radical mechanisms included in the pathogenesis of HT by following out the sera levels of some “real-time” oxidative stress biomarkers. We investigated 14 newly diagnosed patients with euthyroid HT and 35 subjects with HT treated with levothyroxine. Twenty-three healthy subjects were included as controls. All samples were measured in triplicate and presented as arbitrary units. We found statistically significant elevated levels of ascorbate radical (Asc•) in euthyroid HT patients and in HT patients treated with levothyroxine compared to controls. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) products were statistically higher in both studied patient groups compared to controls. Our study showed also statistically significant increases in the levels of registered nitric oxide radical (NO•) in both groups of HT patients compared to controls. Oxidative stress is increased similarly in both euthyroid HT and HT patients under treatment with LT4 and these data reinforce the idea that this is consequence of autoimmunity per se. Our results determine that the addition of antioxidants that includes vitamin C and vitamin E in the treatment plan of HT patients in all stages of disease will normalize the disbalance in oxidative stress biomarkers.


Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Oxidative stress Antioxidants EPR spectroscopy 



This study was funded by University Scientific Project 8/2016 of Medical Faculty, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinic of Endocrinology, University HospitalTrakia UniversityStara ZagoraBulgaria
  2. 2.Department of Propeudetics of Internal DiseasesTrakia UniversityStara ZagoraBulgaria
  3. 3.Department Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical FacultyTrakia UniversityStara ZagoraBulgaria

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