Comparative study on the interaction of eugenol, Butylated hydroxylanisole, and Butylated hydroxyl toluene with some crucial enzymes linked to erectile dysfunction

Abstract

This study investigated and compared the effect of natural phenolic compound (eugenol) and synthetic phenolic compounds [butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT)] on some crucial enzymes (angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase) linked to erectile dysfunction (ED) in vitro. Furthermore, the effects of the compounds were assessed on several antioxidant parameters including DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing power, and Fe2+ chelating ability. Ten millimolar each of the phenolic compounds was prepared in a mixture of ethanol and water (1:1 v/v), and their interactions with ACE and arginase was assessed. Furthermore, ferric-reducing antioxidant property (FRAP), Fe2+-chelating ability, DPPH, and ABTS radicals scavenging abilities were determined. The results revealed that eugenol, BHT, and BHA inhibited ACE and arginase activities in dose-dependent manner. However, eugenol showed the highest inhibitory effect on both enzymes. In addition, eugenol significantly (p < 0.05) had higher FRAP, ABTS scavenging, and Fe2+ chelating abilities when compared with the synthetic compounds (BHT and BHA). The strong inhibitory effects and antioxidative properties of eugenol suggest eugenol as a promising natural phenolic compound could be employed as an alternative food additive and erectogenic agent in ED management/treatment.

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The research was not funded by any grant received by the authors.

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Correspondence to Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha.

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Adefegha, S.A., Okeke, B.M. & Oboh, G. Comparative study on the interaction of eugenol, Butylated hydroxylanisole, and Butylated hydroxyl toluene with some crucial enzymes linked to erectile dysfunction. Comp Clin Pathol 27, 1699–1706 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2796-0

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Keywords

  • Eugenol
  • BHT
  • BHA
  • Antioxidant
  • Enzymes
  • ED