Skip to main content

Hematology and serum biochemistry of growing New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits administered Panax ginseng extracts

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of growing New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits administered Panax ginseng extracts (PGEs). A total of 48 NZW growing male (M) and female (F) rabbits (24 each) were used and the experiment lasted for 28 days. It was carried out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), made up of T1 (0.0 mg/ml of PGEs), T2 (200.0 mg/ml of PGEs), and T3 (400.0 mg/ml of PGEs) which was replicated thrice and sex served as the block. Packed cell volume (PCV) (34.03%), red blood cell (RBC) (5.52 × 106/μl), white blood cell (WBC) (7.60 × 103/μl), and heterophil (34.00%) counts of the growing male NZW rabbits were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in MT3 rabbits. PGEs positively affected mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of the male rabbits which recorded a significantly (P < 0.05) higher value in MT3 (400.0 mg/ml of PGEs), but negatively affected the female rabbits which recorded a significantly (P < 0.05) higher value in FT1 (0.0 mg/ml of PGEs). Total protein values were significantly (P < 0.05) different among the experimental rabbits, with the lowest value obtained from FT3 (4.58 g/dl) rabbits. Globulin values of the rabbits were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in MT3 and FT3 rabbits. Serum cholesterol of the experimental rabbits were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in PGE-treated rabbits (MT2, MT3, FT2, and FT3). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) values of the growing female NZW rabbits were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in PGE-treated female rabbits. The result of this study suggests improved PCV, RBC, and cellular immunity in growing male NZW rabbits. It also suggests that PGEs have an anti-cholesterolemic effect on both male and female growing NZW rabbits.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Ahn JY, Song JY, Yun YS, Jeong G, Choi IS (2006) Protection of Staphylococcus aureus-infected septic mice by suppression of early acute inflammation and enhanced antimicrobial activity by ginsan. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 46(2):187–197

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Baeg I-H, Seung-Ho S (2013) The world ginseng market and the ginseng. JGR 37(1):1–7

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bauer E, Williams BA, Smidt H, Verstegen MW, Mosenthin R (2006) Influence of the gastrointestinal microbiota on development of the immune system in young animals. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol 7(2):35–51

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. De Jong JR, Vlaeyen JWS, Onghena P, Cuypers C, den Hollander M, Ruijgrok J (2005) Reduction of pain-related fear in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: the application of graded exposure in vivo. Pain 116:264–275

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Dein FJ (1984) Laboratory manual of avian haematology. Association of Avian Veterinarians, East Northport

    Google Scholar 

  6. El-Raffa, A. M. (2004). Rabbit production in hot climates. Proceedings of 8th World Rabbit Congress. September 7–10. Pueblo, Mexico

  7. Evans GO (1996) Animal clinical chemistry: a primer for toxicologist. Taylor and Francis, London

    Google Scholar 

  8. Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar HPS, Klaus B (2002) The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review. Br J Nutr 88:587–605

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Frandson RD, Wilke WL, Fails AD (2009) Anatomy and physiology of farm animals, 7th edn. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Hoboken

    Google Scholar 

  10. Hwang SY, Son DJ, Kim IW, Kim DM, Sohn SH, Lee JJ, Kim SK (2008) Korean red ginseng attenuates hypercholesterolemia- enhanced platelet aggregation through suppression of diacylglycerol liberation in high-cholesterol-diet-fed rabbits. Phytother Res 22:778–783. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2363

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Iwuji TC, Herbert U (2012) Evaluation of the growth promoting effect of Garcinia kola seeds in growing rabbits. JGB 1:1–4

  12. Jain NC (1986) Schalm’s veterinary Haematology, 4th edn. Lea and Fabiger, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  13. Jia Y, Li ZY, Zhang HG, Li HB, Liu Y, Li XH (2010) Panax notoginseng saponins decrease cholesterol ester via upregulating ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in foam cells. J Ethnopharmacol 132:297–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.08.033

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Jiangming L, Haiwei C, Aisheng W (2000) Comparative study effect of Panax notoginseng and Ticlid in treating early diabetes nephropathy. Diabetes 49:A376

    Google Scholar 

  15. Khalil WK, Ahmed KA, Park MH, Kim YT, Park HH, Abdel-Wahhab MA (2008) The inhibitory effects of garlic and Panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenoside Rg3 on the genotoxicity, biochemical, and histological changes induced by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in male rats. Arch Toxicol 82:183–195

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kim YW, Song DK, Kim WH, Lee KM, Wie MB, Kim YH, Kee SH, Cho MK (1997) Long-term oral administration of ginseng extract decreases serum gamma-globulin and IgG1 isotype in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 58(1):55–58

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Kim YA, Akoev VR, Elemesov RE (2000) Hyperosmotic hemolysis and antihemolytic activity of the saponin fraction and triterpene glycosides from Panax ginseng C A Meyer. Membr Cell Biol 14(2):237–251

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Kim SH, Park KS, Chang MJ, Sung JH (2005) Effects of Panax ginseng extract on exercise-induced oxidative stress. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 45(2):178–182

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Kim HD, Ha SE, Kang JR, Park JK (2010) Effect of Korean red ginseng extract on cell death responses in Peroxynitrite-treated keratinocytes. J Ginseng Res 34(3):205–211. https://doi.org/10.5142/jgr.2010.34.3.205

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Lakshmi T, Anitha R, Geetha RV (2011) Panax ginseng – a universal panacea in the herbal medicine with diverse pharmacological spectrum – a review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 4(1):14–18

    Google Scholar 

  21. Lee BH, Jeong SM, Lee JH, Kim DH, Kim JH, Kim JI, Shin HC, Lee SM, Nah SY (2004) Differential effect of ginsenoside metabolites on the 5-HT3A receptor-mediated ion current in Xenopus oocytes. Mol Cell 17(1):51–56

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Lee HU, Bae EA, Han MJ, Kim NJ, Kim DH (2005) Hepatoprotective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced liver injury. Liver Int 25(5):1069–1073

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Lee YY, Park JS, Lee EJ, Lee SY, Kim DH, Kang JL, Kim HS (2015) Anti-inflammatory mechanism of ginseng saponin metabolite Rh3 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia: critical role of 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. J Agric Food Chem 63:3472–3480

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Lee GY, Park KG, Namgoong S, Han SK, Jeong SH, Dhong ES, Kim WK (2016) Effects of Panax ginseng extract on human dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. Int Wound J 13(suppl. s1):42–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Li J, Xie ZZ, Tang YB, Zhou JG, Guan YY (2011) Ginsenoside-Rd, a purified component from panax notoginseng saponins, prevents atherosclerosis in apoE knockout mice. Eur J Pharmacol 652:104–110

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Liu Y, Zhang HG, Jia Y, Li XH (2010) Panax notoginseng saponins attenuate atherogenesis accelerated by zymosan in rabbits. Biol Pharm Bull 33:1324–1330

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Mailafia S, Onakpa MM, Owoleke OE (2010) Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria – a review. Bajopas 3(2):20–25

    Google Scholar 

  28. Metori K, Furutsu M, Takahashi S (1997) The preventive effect of ginseng with du-zhong leaf on protein metabolism in aging. Biol Pharm Bull 20(3):237–242

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Meyer DJ, Coles EH, Rich LJ (1992) Veterinary laboratory medicine interpretation and diagnosis. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp 55–70

    Google Scholar 

  30. Mitruka, B. M. and Rawnsley, H. M. (1977) Clinical, biochemical and haematological reference values in normal and experimental animals. Masson Publishing, USA, Inc, 83: 134–135

  31. Müller C, Jenni-Eiermann S, Jenni L (2011) Heterophils/lymphocytes ratio and circulating corticosterone do not indicate the same stress imposed on Eurasian kestrel nestlings. Funct Ecol 25(3):566–576

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Nah JJ, Hahn JH, Chung S, Choi S, Kim YI, Nah SY (2000) Effect of ginsenosides, active components of ginseng, on capsaicin-induced pain-related behavior. Neuropharmacology 39(11):2180–2184

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Obi IU (1990) Statistical methods of detecting differences between treatment means, 2nd edn. Snaap Press Enugu, Enugu

    Google Scholar 

  34. Ogbuewu IP, Onyelekere BC, Etuk IF, Ezeokeke CT (2014) Physiological effect of egg laying on haematological and serum biochemical constituents of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). NJAS 16(1):85–93

    Google Scholar 

  35. Onifade AA, Abu OA, Obiyan RI, Abanikannda OTF (1999) Rabbit production in Nigeria: some aspects of current status and promotional strategies. World Rabbit Sci 7(2):51–58

    Google Scholar 

  36. Pan, S. J., Ding, Z. and Ivy, J. L. (2002) Effects of six weeks of panax ginseng on triglycerides and MRNA profiles in an animal model of type II diabetes. International scientific Conference on complementary, alternative and integrative medicine research, April 12–14, Boston Massachusetts

  37. Park J, Song H, Kim SK, Lee MS, Rhee DK, Lee YJ (2017) Effects of ginseng on two main sex steroid hormone receptors: estrogen and androgen receptors. JGR 41(2):215–221

    Google Scholar 

  38. Peng B, Du J, Jia Q, Qiao A, Wu Y, Liu X, Qiang Q (2001) The effect of salvia miltiorrhiza and shengmai on inflammatory mediator and renal function of post-operative patients with obstructive jaundice. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 32(4):587–589

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Salih NA (2012) Effect of ginseng (Panax ginseng) on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus in male rabbits. Al-Anbar J Vet Sci 5(1):187–194

    Google Scholar 

  40. Shimaa AE (2014) Ameliorative effect of Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) on selenium induced hepatic toxicity in broilers. Int J Adv Res 2(9):645–653

    Google Scholar 

  41. Steel RGO, Torrie (1986) Principles and procedures of statistics, A biometric approach, 2nd edn. Mc. Graw – Hill Brook Co. Inc., New York

    Google Scholar 

  42. Thrall MA, Weiser MG (2002) Haematology. In: Hendrix CM (ed) Laboratory procedures for veterinary technicians, 4th edn. Mosby Inc. St. Louis, Missouri, pp 29–74

    Google Scholar 

  43. Waugh A, Grant A (2010) Anatomy and physiology in health and illness, 11th edn. Churchill Livinstone ELSEVIER, Beijing

    Google Scholar 

  44. World Health Organization (WHO) (1981) Environmental health criteria for mycotoxins, World Health Organization, vol. 11. WHO, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  45. World Health Organization (WHO) (1999) Monographs on selected medicinal plants. Vol 1. Geneva. http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js2200e

  46. Yan L, Meng QW, Lee JH, Wang JP, Kim IH (2011) Effects of dietary wild-ginseng adventitious root meal on growth performance, blood profiles, relative organ weight and meat quality in broiler chickens. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 24(2):258–263

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Yun TK, Choi SY, Yun HY (2001) Epidemiological study on cancer prevention by ginseng: are all kinds of cancers preventable by ginseng? J Korean Med Sci 16(Suppl):S19–S27

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This study was funded by Tertiary Education Trust Fund; through Federal University of Technology Owerri (Ref: FUT/DVC (Acad.)/GEN 92/51).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to T. C. Iwuji.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Ethical approval

All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Iwuji, T.C., Herbert, U., Oguike, M.A. et al. Hematology and serum biochemistry of growing New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits administered Panax ginseng extracts. Comp Clin Pathol 27, 1691–1697 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2795-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Ginseng extracts
  • Hematology
  • Serum biochemistry
  • Sex effects
  • Growing rabbits