Skip to main content

Characterization of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) essential oil as an herbal, antibacterial, and antioxidant substance

Abstract

The aim of this in vitro study was to assess hydro-distillated Mentha pulegium essential oil (MPE) by composition, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial properties and compared these indexes with synthetic antibiotics and antioxidants. The essential oil active ingredients determined by GC mass procedure while antioxidant activity determined by DPPH technique. Furthermore, by applying four bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus), antibacterial properties of pennyroyal was distinguished by disk diffusion, MIC, and MBC methods in different concentrations. The results showed that pennyroyal essential oil has 29 constituents so that cis-pulegone oxide, (E)-p-mentha-2-en-1-ol, and 3,3′-dimenthol being the main components. In addition, strong antimicrobial activity against all four microorganisms tested, especially on Gram positive bacteria, was distinguished, even though it was more effective in higher doses. Besides, the essence was able to reduce the stable free radical DPPH with an IC50 of 1.027 mg/mL while BHT was 20.280 μg/mL. In conclusion, pennyroyal essential oil can be a good substitution for some synthetic antibiotics and antioxidants.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  • Adams RP (2001) Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream

    Google Scholar 

  • Ait-Ouazzou A, Loran S, Arakrak A, Laglaoui A, Rota C, Herrera A, Conchello P (2012) Evaluation of the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Mentha pulegium, Juniperusphoenicea, and Cyperus longus essential oils from Morocco. Food Res Int 45(1):313–319

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alpsoy L, Sahin H, Karaman S (2011) Anti-oxidative and anti-genotoxic effects of methanolic extract of Mentha pulegium on human lympocyte culture. Toxicol Ind Health 27(7):647–654

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bakerink JA, Gospe SM, Dimand RJ, Eldridge MW (1996) Multiple organ failure after ingestion of pennyroyal oil from herbal tea in two infants. Pediatrics 98(5):944–947

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Balouiri M, Sadiki M, Ibnsouda SK (2016) Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: a review. J Pharm anal 6(2):71–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baser KHC, Buchbauer G (Eds.) (2015) Handbook of essential oils: science, technology, and applications. CRC Press

  • Boukhebti H, Chaker AN, Belhadj H, Sahli F, Ramdhani M, Laouer H, Harzallah D (2011) Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Mentha pulegium L. and Menthaspicata L. essential oils. Der Pharmacia Lett 3:267–275

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brahmi F, Abdenour A, Bruno M, Silvia P, Alessandra P, Danilo F, Mohamed C (2016) Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Mentha pulegium L. and Mentharotundifolia (L.) Huds growing in Algeria. Ind Crop Prod 88:96–105

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burt S (2004) Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. Int J Food Microbiol 94(3):223–253

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cherrat L, Espina L, Bakkali M, Pagan R, Laglaoui A (2014) Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Mentha pulegium, Lavandula stoechas and Satureja calamintha Scheele essential oils and an evaluation of their bactericidal effect in combined processes. Innovative Food Sci Emerg Technol 22:221–229

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cosentino S, Tuberoso CI, Pisano B, Satta M, Mascia V, Arzedi E, Palmas F (1999) In-vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian Thymus essential oils. Lett Appl Microbiol 29:130–135

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Sousa AAS, Soares PMG, de Almeida ANS, Maia AR, de Souza EP, Assreuy AMS (2010) Antispasmodic effect of Mentha piperita essential oil on tracheal smooth muscle of rats. J Ethnopharmacol 130(2):433–436

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Falowo AB, Fayemi PO, Muchenje V (2014) Natural antioxidants against lipid–protein oxidative deterioration in meat and meat products: a review. Food Res Int 64:171–181

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gordon WP, Forte AJ, McMurtry RJ, Gal J, Nelson SD (1982) Hepatotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity of pennyroyal oil and its constituent terpenes in the mouse. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 65(3):413–424

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gulluce M, Sahin F, Sokmen M, Ozer H, Daferera D, Sokmen A, Ozkan H (2007) Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oils and methanol extract from Menthalongifolia L. ssp. longifolia. Food Chem 103(4):1449–1456

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hajlaoui H, Trabelsi N, Noumi E, Snoussi M, Fallah H, Ksouri R, Bakhrouf A (2009) Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of tow cultivated mint species (Menthalongifolia and Menthapulegium) used in the Tunisian folkloric medicine. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 25(12):2227–2238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang DJ, Ou BX, Prior RL (2005) The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 53:1841–1856

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang WY, Cai YZ, Zhang Y (2009) Natural phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants: potential use for cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer 62(1):1–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jorgensen JH, Turnidge JD (2015) Susceptibility test methods: dilution and disk diffusion methods. In: Man Clin Microbiol (ed) 11th edn. American Society of Microbiology, pp. 1253–1273

  • Kamkar A, Javan AJ, Asadi F, Kamalinejad M (2010) The antioxidative effect of Iranian Mentha pulegium extracts and essential oil in sunflower oil. Food Chem Toxicol 48(7):1796–1800

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karaman I, Sahin F, Gulluce M, Ogutcu H, Sengul M, Adiguzel A (2003) Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Juniperusoxycedrus L. J Ethnopharmacol 85:231–235

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar P, Mishra S, Malik A, Satya S (2011) Insecticidal properties of Mentha species: a review. Ind Crop Prod 34(1):802–817

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lahlou M (2004) Methods to study the phytochemistry and bioactivity of essential oils. Phytother Res 18(6):435–448

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lawrence BM (2007) Mint: the genus Mentha. Medicinal and aromatic plants-industrial profiles. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  • Mahboubi M, Haghi G (2008) Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Mentha pulegium L. essential oil. J Ethnopharmacol 119(2):325–327

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miraj S, Kiani S (2016) Study of pharmacological effect of Mentha pulegium: a review. Pharm Lett 8(9):242–245

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rim IS, Jee CH (2006) Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoidesfarinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal). Korean J Parasitol 44(2):133–138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sadeghi E, Mohammadi A, Jamilpanah M, Bashiri M, Bohlouli S (2016) Antimicrobial effects of Mentha pulegium essential oil on Listeria monocytogenes in Iranian white cheese. J Food Qual Hazards Control 3(1):20–24

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sahin F, Karaman I, Gulluce M, Ogutcu H, Sengul M, Adiguzel A et al (2002) Evaluation of antimicrobial activities Satureja hortensis L. J Ethnopharmacol 87:61–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanches-Silva A, Costa D, Albuquerque TG, Buonocore GG, Ramos F, Castilho MC, Costa HS (2014) Trends in the use of natural antioxidants in active food packaging: a review. Food Addit Contam, Part A 31(3):374–395

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shan B, Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H (2005) Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. J Agric Food Chem 53(2):7749–7759

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Soares PMG, Assreuy AMS, Souza EP, Lima RF, Silva TO, Fontenele SR, Criddle DN (2005) Inhibitory effects of the essential oil of Mentha pulegium on the isolated rat myometrium. Planta Med 71(03):214–218

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Soares PMG, de Freitas Pires A, de Souza EP, Assreuy AMS, Criddle DN (2012) Relaxant effects of the essential oil of Mentha pulegium L. in rat isolated trachea and urinary bladder. J Pharm Pharmacol 64(12):1777–1784

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teixeira B, Marques A, Ramos C, Batista I, Serrano C, Matos O, Nunes ML (2012) European pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) from Portugal: chemical composition of essential oil and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts and essential oil. Ind Crop Prod 36(1):81–87

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vinatoru M (2001) An overview of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs. Ultrason Sonochem 8(3):303–313

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Windisch W, Schedle K, Plitzner C, Kroismayr A (2008) Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. J Anim Sci 86(14_suppl):E140–E148

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yehye WA, Rahman NA, Ariffin A, Hamid SBA, Alhadi AA, Kadir FA, Yaeghoobi M (2015) Understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): a review. Eur J Med Chem 101:295–312

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zekri N, Amalich S, Boughdad A, El Belghiti MA, Zair T (2013) Phytochemical study and insecticidal activity of Mentha pulegium L. oils from Morocco against Sitophilus Oryzae. Mediterr J Chem 2(4):607–619

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This study was funded by Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohsen Afsharmanesh.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Dehghani, N., Afsharmanesh, M., Salarmoini, M. et al. Characterization of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) essential oil as an herbal, antibacterial, and antioxidant substance. Comp Clin Pathol 27, 1575–1581 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2776-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2776-4

Keywords

  • Antibacterial
  • Antioxidant
  • Composition
  • Essential oil
  • Mentha pulegium