Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 791–796 | Cite as

VIP-loaded PLGA as an anti-asthma nanodrug candidate

  • Seyyed Shamsadin Athari
  • Esmaeil Mortaz
  • Zahra Pourpak
  • Mostafa Moin
  • Seyed Mohammad MoazzeniEmail author
Original Article


Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), a biodegradable polymer, can effectively protect encapsulated peptides from enzymatic degradation. PLGA was approved by FDA as a safe drug delivery system suitable for inhalation administration. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a 28-amino-acid peptide, displays anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic effects, which can be considered as a new therapeutic option to control and treat asthma. Because of in vivo enzymatic degradation of VIP including in the lung, there is a need for an applicable delivery system. In light of this, the purpose of this study was to prepare VIP-loaded PLGA microspheres as a drug delivery system, assuming that the newly-introduced model has the ability to persist for a longer time in respiratory tracts. The PLGA microsphere was produced, and loaded with VIP as an applicable nanodrug system. A series of physiochemical properties were determined, including the morphological characteristics, average size of nanoparticles, electric charge distribution, FTIR spectroscopy absorption, and loading and releasing percentage of the nanodrug. VIP-loaded PLGA exhibited an average size of approximately 550 ± 50 nm. Additionally, the produced microsphere showed 78 % VIP release after 10 h at the pH value corresponding to bronchioalveolar microenvironment (approximately 6.5). In the present study, PLGA was formulated and used as a delivery system for VIP. Taken together, the newly-introduced nanodrug seems to be helpful for the clinical treatment of allergic asthma. PLGA nanoparticles can be considered as a potential efficient delivery system for VIP in the respiratory system.


PLGA Vasoactive intestinal peptide Nanodrug 



This manuscript was based on a research work performed as a partial fulfillment for PhD degree in medical immunology that was supported by Tarbiat Modares University. The authors also acknowledge Dr. Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani; the Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands and Airways Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Compliance with ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. This study has ethical approval from the Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences with No. 412/P/236 and from the Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University with No. 52D/6564.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Financial support

This study was funded by Tarbiat Modares University (52D/313), Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University and Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (412/P/135).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seyyed Shamsadin Athari
    • 1
  • Esmaeil Mortaz
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Zahra Pourpak
    • 6
    • 7
  • Mostafa Moin
    • 6
    • 7
  • Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical SciencesTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung DiseasesShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of SciencesUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Airways Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of MedicineImperial College LondonLondonUK
  5. 5.Department of Immunology, Faculty of MedicineShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Children’s Medical CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  7. 7.Department of Immunology and Allergy, Children’s Medical CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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