Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 363–374 | Cite as

A comparative study on antihypertensive and antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from fruit and leaf of some guava (Psidium guajava L.) varieties

  • Adedayo O. AdemiluyiEmail author
  • Ganiyu Oboh
  • Opeyemi B. Ogunsuyi
  • Funmilayo M. Oloruntoba
Original Article


Investigation of antihypertensive and antioxidant properties of fruit and leaf extracts from four varieties (giant white, small white, stripped and pink) of guava (Psidium guajava L.) in vitro was the focus of this study. Consequently, methanol/1 M HCl (20:1 v/v) extraction of fruit and leaf of the guava varieties were carried out. Thereafter, the extracts were assayed for their angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect, total phenol and flavonoid contents, reducing property, radicals (DPPH, ABTS•+, hydroxyl and nitric oxide) scavenging ability, Fe2+ chelating ability, and inhibition of Fe2+ and Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced lipid peroxidation reactions (in vitro). Furthermore, the phenolic constituents of the extracts were characterised with gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that all the extracts significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited ACE activity, scavenged (DPPH, ABTS•+, nitric oxide and hydroxyl) radicals, chelated Fe2+ and also inhibited Fe2+ and SNP induced lipid peroxidation in rat heart (in vitro). Nevertheless, the pink guava variety had the highest ACE inhibitory and antioxidant properties. In addition, Rosmarinic acid, eugenol, carvacrol, catechin and caffeic acid were the dominant phenolics found in the extracts. The ACE inhibitory effects and antioxidant properties of the guava extracts, which correlates significantly with their phenolic constituents, could largely contribute to their antihypertensive properties as obtained in traditional medicine.


Guava varieties Phenolic compounds Hypertension Angiotensin I converting enzyme Antioxidant 


  1. Ademiluyi AO, Oboh G (2013) Soybean phenolic-rich extract inhibit key-enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (a-amylase and a-glucosidase) and hypertension (angiotensin 1 converting enzyme) in vitro. Exp Toxicol Pathol 65(3):305–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ademiluyi AO, Oboh G, Aragbaiye FP, Oyeleye SI, Ogunsuyi OB (2015a) Antioxidant properties and in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties of phenolics constituents from different varieties of Corchorus spp. J Taibah Univ Med Sci 10:278–287Google Scholar
  3. Ademiluyi AO, Oyeleye SI, Oboh G (2015b) Biological activities, antioxidant properties and phytoconstituents of essential oil from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. Comp Clin Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s00580-015-2163-3
  4. Ajila CM, Prasada UJS (2008) Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract. Food Chem Toxicol 46:303–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnao MB (2011) Some methodological problems in the determination of antioxidant activity using chromogen radicals: a practical case. Trends Food Sci Technol 11:419–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ayub MY, Norazmir MN, Mamot S, Jeeven K, Hadijah H (2010) Anti-hypertensive effect of pink guava (Psidium guajava) puree on spontaneous hypertensive rats. Int Food Res J 17:89–96Google Scholar
  7. Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK, Prashad D (2005) Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants. Int J Food Sci Nutr 4:287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balasuriya BWN, Rupasinghe HPV (2011) Plant flavonoids as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in regulation of hypertension. Funct Foods Health Dis 1:172–188Google Scholar
  9. Belle NAV, Dalmolin GD, Fonini G, Rubim MA, Rocha JBT (2004) Polyamines reduce lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents. Brain Res 1008:245–251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bravo L (1998) Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev 56:317–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Calcerrada P, Peluffo G, Radi R (2011) Nitric oxide-derivedoxidants with a focus on peroxynitrite: molecular targets, cellular responses and therapeutic implications. Curr Pharm Des 17(35):3905–3932CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chu Y, Sun J, Wu X, Liu RH (2002) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of common vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 50(23):6910–6916CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Crews DE (2007) Senescence, aging and disease. J Physiol Anthropol 26:365–372CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cushman DW, Cheung HS (1971) Spectrophotometric assay and properties of the Angiotensin 1-converting enzyme of rabbit lung. Biochem Pharmacol 20:1637–1648CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dastmalchi K, Dorman HJD, Kosar M, Hiltunen R (2007) Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of a water soluble Moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) extract. Lebensm Wiss Technol 40:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gyamfi M, Yonamine M, Aniya Y (1999) Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana:Thonningia sanguinea on experimentally-induced liver injuries. Gen Pharmacol 32:661–667CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1981) Formation of a thiobarbituric-acid- reactive substance from deoxyribose in the presence of iron salts: the role of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. FEBS Lett 128:347–352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Joseph S, Chatli MK, Biswas AK, Sahoo J (2014) Efficacy of pink guava pulp as an antioxidant in raw pork emulsion. J Food Sci Technol 51(8):1492–1500CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaisserlian CE, Razzouq N, Astier A, Paul M (2005) Sodium nitroprusside stability at 1 μg/mL in aqueous solutions. Eur J Hosp Pharm Sci 11:88–90Google Scholar
  20. Kelley WTD, Coffey DL, Mueller TC (1994) Lipid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in soil. J AOAC Int 77:805–809Google Scholar
  21. Kennelly EJ, Flores G, Dastmalchi K, Wu S-B, Whalen K, Dabo AJ, Reynertson KA, Foronjy RF, Doarmiento JM (2013) Phenolic-rich extract from the Costa Rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) pulp with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Potential for COPD therapy. Food Chem 141:889–895CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Manso MA, Marta M, Jeanne E, Rosario H, Amaya A, Rosina L (2008) Effect of the long-term intake of an egg white hydrolysate on the oxidative status and blood lipid profile of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Chem 109:361–367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Marcocci L, Maguire JJ, Droy-Lefaix MT, Packer L (1994) The nitric oxide-scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 201:748–755CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Meda A, Lamien CE, Romito M, Millogo J, Nacoulma OG (2005) Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and praline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chem 91:571–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Miguel M, Aleixandre MA, Ramos M, López- Fandiño R (2006) Effect of simulated gastrointestinal digestion on the antihypertensive properties of ACE- inhibitory peptides derived from ovalbumin. J Agric Food Chem 54:726–731CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Minotti G, Aust SD (1987) An investigation into the mechanism of citrate-Fe2+-dependent lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Biol Med 3:379–387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mukherjee PK, Chaudhary SK, Maity N, Nema NK, Bahdra S, Saha BP (2014) Ocimum sactum L, a potential angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor useful in hypertension. Indian J Natur Prod Resour 5:83–87Google Scholar
  28. Musaa KH, Abdullaha A, Subramaniamb V (2015) Flavonoid profile and antioxidant activity of pink guava. Skin 172(36b):308-57aGoogle Scholar
  29. Oboh G, Rocha JBT (2007) Polyphenols in Red Pepper [Capsicum annuumvar. aviculareTepin)] and their protective effect on some pro-oxidants induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver. Eur Food Res Tech 225:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Oboh G, Ogunruku OO, Ogidiolu FO, Ademiluyi AO, Adedayo BC, Ademosun AO (2014) Interaction of some commercial teas with some carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes linked with type-2 diabetes: a dietary intervention in the prevention of type-2 diabetes. Advanc Prev Med 2014:534082Google Scholar
  31. Ogbole OO, Adeniji JA, Ajaiyeoba EO, Adu DF (2013) Anti-polio virus activity of medicinal plants selected from the Nigerian ethno-medicine. Acad J 12(24):3878–3883Google Scholar
  32. Ogunmefun OT, Fasola TR, Saba AB, Akinyemi AJ (2015) Inhibitory effect of Phragmanthera incana (Schum.) harvested from Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao) and Kolanut (Cola Nitida) trees on Fe2+ induced lipid oxidative stress in some rat tissues-in vitro. IJBS 11(1):16PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K (1979) Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 95:351–358CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ojewole JA (2005) Hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of Psidium guajava L, (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extracts. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 27:689–695CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Oyaizu M (1986) Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxidative activity of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr 44:307–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Puntel RL, Nogueira CW, Rocha JBT (2005) Krebs cycle intermediates modulate thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production in rat brain in vitro. Neurochem Res 30:225–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Quifones M, Guerrero L, Suarez M, Poro Z, Aleicandre A, Arola L, Muguerza B (2013) Low-molecular procyanidin rich grape seed extract exerts antihypertensive effect in males spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Res Int 51(2):587–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Radi R (2004) Nitric oxide, oxidants, and protein tyrosine nitration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:4003–4008CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorisation assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26:1231–1237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Roy CK, Kamath JV, Asad M (2006) Hepatoprotective activity of Psidium guajava L leaf extract. Indian J Exp Biol 44:305–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ruttoh EK, Bii C, Tarus PK, Machocho A, Karimi LK, Okemo P (2009) Antifungal activity of Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten (Apocynaceae) organic extracts. Pharmacognosy Res 1(6):387Google Scholar
  42. Schiffrin EL (2010) Antioxidants in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Mol Inter 10:354–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Ravent´os RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 299:152–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Taler SJ, Agarwal R, Bakris GL, Flynn JT, Nilsson PM, Rahman M, Sanders PW, Textor SC, Weir MR, Townsend RR (2013) KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for management of blood pressure in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 62(2):201–213CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Umamaheswari M, Ajith MP, Asokkumar K, Sivashanmugam T, Subhadradevi V, Jagannath P, Madeswaran A (2012) In vitro angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of seed extract of Apium graveolens Linn. Ann Biol Res 3:1274–1282Google Scholar
  46. Wagner C, Fachinetto R, Dalla Corte CL, Brito VB, Severo D, De Oliveira Costa Dias G, Morel AF, Nogueira CW, Rocha JB (2006) Quercitrin, a glycoside form of quercetin, prevents lipid peroxidation in vitro. Brain Res 1107(1):192–198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Wan Nur Zahidah WZ, Noriham A, Zainon MN (2011) Antioxidant activity of plant by-products (pink guava leaves and seeds) and their application in cookies. Thai J Agric Sci 44(5):374–383Google Scholar
  48. Zar JH (1984) Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, p 620Google Scholar
  49. Zhang Z-L, Lia Q-L, Lia B-G, Zhangb Y, Gaob X-P, Lia C-Q (2008) Three angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from Rabdosia coetsa. Phytomedicine 15:386–388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adedayo O. Ademiluyi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ganiyu Oboh
    • 1
  • Opeyemi B. Ogunsuyi
    • 1
  • Funmilayo M. Oloruntoba
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryFederal University of Technology, AkureAkureNigeria

Personalised recommendations