Skip to main content


Log in

Changes in haematological parameters and oxidative stress response of goats subjected to road transport stress in a hot humid tropical environment

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Comparative Clinical Pathology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Even though studies investigating the effect of road transportation on haematological parameters in goats from temperate and hot tropical environments are numerous, few studies have focused on the recovery rate following transportation, especially in the hot, humid tropical environment. This study investigated the haematological parameters and oxidative stress response of goats subjected to 7 h of road transportation in the hot, humid tropical environment and the possible recovery period. Thirty-five healthy Boer goats, aged 2–3, weighing 20–25 kg, were divided into two groups, designated A and B, of 30 and 5 animals, respectively. Group A was transported for 7 h, and blood samples were collected before, 3.5 h on transit, after transport, and on days 3, 7, 16 and 26 post-transport, while five goats served as control. Plasma and haemolysate were prepared and used to assay malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione alongside haematological parameters. The differential leukocyte counts of group A were altered following transportation as neutrophils, monocytes and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios increased significantly (P < 0.01) during transport compared to group B. Malondialdehyde value increased significantly (P < 0.01) following transportation through day 3 post-transport, while superoxide dismutase and glutathione activities decreased simultaneously following transportation and increased from day 3 through day 7 post-transportation. This study revealed that goats subjected to 7 h of transportation in the hot humid tropical condition experience haematological derangements and oxidative stress which take an average period of 3 to 16 days for recovery.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Adenkola AY, Ayo JO (2013) Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road transportation stress: A review. Afr J Biotechnol 9(31):4845–4856

    Google Scholar 

  • Ambore B, Ravikanth K, Maini S, Rekhe DS (2009) Haematological profile and growth performance of goats under transportation stress. Vet World 5:195–198

    Google Scholar 

  • Ayala A, Muñoz MF, Argüelles S (2014) “Lipid peroxidation: production, metabolism and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal.”. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014:2014,

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ayo JO, Oladele SB (1996) Transport stress in food animals. A review. Nig Vet J 1:58–68

    Google Scholar 

  • Ayo JO, Oladele SB, Fayomi A (2002) Behavioural reactions of cattle to stress situations: A review. J Agric Tech 8:15–20

    Google Scholar 

  • Benjamin MM (1978) Outline of veterinary clinical pathology. Iowa state University Press, Iowa, USA, pp 35–105

    Google Scholar 

  • Beutler E (1984) Red Cell Metabolism. A Manual of Biochemical Methods, 3rd edn. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp 11–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Broom DM, Goode JA, Hall SJG, Lloyd DM, Parrott RF (1996) Hormonal and physiological effects of a 15-hour road journey in sheep: comparison with the responses to loading, handling and penning in the absence of transport. The Vet J 152:593–604

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Earley B, Murray M, Prendiville DJ (2010) Effect of road transport for up to 24 hours followed by twenty-four hour recovery on live weight and physiological responses of bulls. BMC Vet Res 6(1):38

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ellman GL (1959) Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys 82(1):70–77

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ferguson DM, Warner RD (2008) Have we underestimated the impact of pre-slaughter stress on meat quality in ruminants? Meat Sci 80:12–19

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hanzawa K, Wantanabe S (2000) Changes in osmotic fragility of erythrocytes during exercise in athletic horses. J Equine Sci 11:51–61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Homann S, van Rooyen A, Moyo T, Nengomasha Z (2007) Enhancing incomes and livelihoods through improved farmers’ practices on goat production and marketing. Proceedings of a workshop organized by the Goat Forum, 2–3 October 2007, Intl Crops Res Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 84.

  • Kannan G, Terrill TH, Kouakou B, Gazal OS, Gelaye S, Amoah EA, Samake S (2000) Transportation of goats: effects on physiological stress responses and liveweight loss. J Anim Sci 78:1450–1457

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Knowles TG, Warriss PD, Brown SN, Edwards JE (1999) Effects on cattle of transportation by road for up to 31-hours. Vet Rec 145:575–582

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Minka NS, Ayo JO (2007a) Physiological responses of transported goats treated with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season. Anim Sci J 78:164–172

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Minka NS, Ayo JO (2007b) Effects of loading behaviour and road transport stress on traumatic injuries in cattle transported by road during the hot-dry season. Life Sci 107:91–95

    Google Scholar 

  • Minka NS, Ayo JO (2008) Hematology and behavior of pullets transported by road and administered ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season. Res Vet Sci 85:389–393

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Minka NS, Ayo JO. (2009) Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress. Afr. J. Biotechnol, 8: 7415–7427, Available online at

  • Minka NS, Ayo JO (2010) Physiological responses of erythrocytes of goats to transportation and the modulatory role of ascorbic acid. J Vet Med Sci 72:875–881

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Minka NS, Ayo JO (2011) Modulating effect of ascorbic acid on transport-induced immunosuppression in goats. ISRN Vet Sci 2011:749753

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Minka NS, Ayo JO (2012) Assessment of thermal load on transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry conditions. Intl J Biometeorol 56:333–341

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Miranda-de la Lama GC, Monge P, Villarroel M, Olleta JL, García-Belenguer S, María GA (2011) Effects of road type during transport on lamb welfare and meat quality in dry hot climates. Trop Anim Health Prod 43(5):915–922

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mormede P, Soissons J, Bluthe RM, Raoult J, Legarff G, Levieux D, Bouyer J (1982) Effect of transportation on blood serum composition, disease incidence, and production traits in young calves. Influence of the journey duration. In Ann Rech Vet 13:369–384

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Niedźwiedź A, Nicpoń J, Zawadzki M, Służewska‐Niedźwiedź M, Januszewska L (2012) “The influence of road transport on the activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione‐S‐transferase in equine erythrocytes. Vet Clin Pathol 41(1):123–126

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nwe TM, Hori E, Manda M, Watanabe S (1996) Significance of catecholamines and cortisol levels in blood during transportation stress in goats. Small Rum Res 20:129–135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Odore R, D’Angelo A, Badino P, Bellino C, Pagliasso S, Re G (2004) Road transportation affects blood hormone levels and lymphocyte glucocorticoid and B-adrenergic receptor concentrations in calves. The Vet J 168:297–303

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K (1979) Assay of lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal of Biochem 95:351–358

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Richardson C (2005) Lowering stress in transported goats. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, and Food–Livestock Technology Branch Northern Ontario Regional Office, Food and Rural Affairs

    Google Scholar 

  • Schalm OW, Jain NC, Carroll GH (1975) Veterinary hematology, 3rd edn. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  • Somani SM, Husain K, Diaz-Phillips L, Lanzotti DJ, Kareti KR, Trammell GL (1996) Interaction of exercise and ethanol on antioxidant enzymes in brain regions of the rat. Alcohol 13(6):603–610

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tadich N, Gallo H, Bustamante H, Schwerter M, van Schaik G (2005) Effects of transport and lairage time on some blood constituents of Friesian-Cross steers in Chile. Livest Prod Sci 93:223–233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tanko PN, Mayowa OO, Yusoff SM, Bejo SK, Salisi S, Mohd EA (2014) The ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid on the oxidative status, live weight and recovery rate in road transport stressed goats in a hot humid tropical environment. Anim Sci J 85:611–616

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tarrant PV, Kenny FJ, Harrington D, Murphy M (1992) Long distance transportation of steers to slaughter: Effect of stocking density on physiology, behaviour and carcass quality. Livest Prod Sci 30:223–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tekelioglu O, Sezer O, Ekici F, Atis O, Akbas A (2010) The effect of simulated transportation on biochemical plasma parameters of Japanese quails. J ANIM VET ADV 9:892–895

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wernicki A, Urban-Chmiel R, Kankofer M, Mikucki P, Puchalski A, Tokarzewski S (2006) Evaluation of plasma cortisol and TBARS levels in calves after short-term transportation. Rev Med Vet 157:30–34

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zulkifli I, Bahyuddin N, Wai CY, Farjam AS, Sazili AQ, Rajion MA, Meng GY (2010) Physiological responses in goats subjected to road transportation under the hot, humid tropical conditions. Intl J Agric Biol 12:840–844

    Google Scholar 

Download references


We would like to thank all the laboratory staff of the Post-Mortem Laboratory and Histopathology Laboratory (Necropsy building) of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia for their generous time, cooperation and contribution to this study. This study was funded by Science Fund, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI), Malaysia.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sabri Mohd Yusoff.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Polycarp, T.N., Obukowho, E.B. & Yusoff, S.M. Changes in haematological parameters and oxidative stress response of goats subjected to road transport stress in a hot humid tropical environment. Comp Clin Pathol 25, 285–293 (2016).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: