Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 165–168 | Cite as

A histology-based study in apparently healthy wild freshwater stingrays Potamotrygon motoro

  • Julieta Engrácia de MoraesEmail author
  • Jefferson Yunis Aguinaga
  • Pedro de Oliveira Viadanna
  • Flávio Ruas de Moraes
Original Article


Histopathological studies are important as a reference in pathological process. There are a few of these studies in elasmobranchs. The aim of this study was to describe the histology of kidney, spleen, liver, and gills of wild apparently healthy Potamotrygon motoro. However, we observed some pathological findings in these animals. Nineteen P. motoro were collected from the Parana River, Brazil. Histology of kidney, spleen, liver, and gills were performed according to usual procedures. Briefly, the organs were immersed in 10 % formaldehyde solution for 48 h and routinely processed, embedded in paraffin (5–6 mm thick), and subsequent staining with hematoxylin–eosin (HE), Perls’, and Schmorl’s stains. Histological surface areas were measured using Image Pro Plus software 6.3. We observed that melanomacrophages around the portal vein were larger and more abundant than in the area without the bile duct. Moderate steatosis was observed in most fish, large amount of melanomacrophages and lymphocytes in the gills, liver, and spleen comparing with other studies in this species that could suggest that the immune system in these animals is constantly active. No clinical signs were observed in the fish. Studies are necessary to characterize the immune response against pathogens in elasmobranchs, especially in the Potamotrygon species.


Pathology Environment Immunology Parana River 


  1. Agius C, Roberts RJ (2003) Melano-macrophage centers and their role in fish pathology. J Fish Dis 26:499–509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad I, Özlem Ö, Sema IÜ, Burcu KT (2009) The effects of sodium perchlorate on the liver of Molly Fish (Poecilia sphenops, Cyprinidae, Teleostei). Afr J Biotechnol 8:11Google Scholar
  3. Baldisseroto B (2002) Fisiologia de peixes aplicada a piscicultura. UFSM, Santa Maria, SC, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  4. Brinn RP, Marcon JL, McComb DM, Gomes LC, Abreu JS, Baldisseroto B (2012) Stress responses of the endemic freshwater cururu stingray (Potamotrygon cf. histrix) during transportation in the Amazon region of the Rio Negro. Comp Biochem Physiol Part A 162:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brum A, Dotta G, Roumbedakis K, Gonçalves ELT, Garcia LP, Garcia P, Scussel VM, Martins ML (2014) Hematological and histopathological changes in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes) exposed to clomazone herbicide in the Madre River, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. J Environ Sci Health B 49:169–175CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Di Giulio RT, Habig C, Gallagher EP (1993) Effects of Black Rock Harbor sediments on indices of biotransformation, oxidative stress, and DNA integrity in channel catfish. Aquat Toxicol 26:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Endo M (1984) Histological and enzymatic studies on the renal tubules of some marine elasmobranchs. J Morphol 182:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Evans D (1987) The fish gill: site of action and model for toxic effects of environmental pollutants. Environ Health Perspec 71:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Genten F, Terwinghe E, Danguy A (2009) Atlas of fish histology. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guidelli G, Gomes WL, Takemoto RM, Pavanelli GC (2011) Relative condition factor and parasitism in anostomid fishes from the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River, Brazil. Vet Parasitol 177:145–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ledic-Neto J, Dotta G, Garcia P, Brum A, Tavares EL, Martins ML (2014) Haematology and melanomacrophage centers of Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with própolis. Acta Sci Bio Sci 36:263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Luna LG (1968) Manual of the histologic staining methods of the armed forces institute of pathology, 3rd edn. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Magalhães MR, da Silva NJ, Ulhoa CJ (2008) A hyaluronidase from Potamotrygon motoro (freshwater stingrays) venom: isolation and characterization. Toxicon 51:1060–1067CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin RA (2005) Conservation of freshwater and euryhaline elasmo-branchs. J Mar Biol Ass UK 85:1049–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McClelland G, Zwingelstein G, Weber J-M, Brichon G (1995) Lipid composition of tissue and plasma in two Mediterranean fishes, the gilt-head sea bream (Chrysophyrys auratus) and the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McGavin MD, Zachary JF (2007) Pathological basis of veterinary disease. Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, MissouriGoogle Scholar
  17. Nelson DL, Lehninger L, Cox M (2008) Lehninger principles of biochemistry. W.H. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Neto DG, Uieda VS (2012) Activity and habitat use of two species of stingrays (Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae) in the upper Paraná River basin, Southeastern Brazil. Neotrop Ichthyol 10(1):81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Oguri M (1985) On the liver tissue of freshwater stingray and balloon fish. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 51(5):717–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Oguri M (1986) Absence of juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys of freshwater stingrays and primitive bony fishes. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 52(2):1735–1737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Peltzer PM, Lajmanovich R, Sanchez J, Cabagna M, Attademo M, Basso A (2008) Effects of agricultural pond eutrophication on survival and health status of Scinax nasicus tadpoles. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 70:185–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Rombout JH, Huttenhuis HB, Picchietti S, Scapigliati G (2005) Phylogeny and ontogeny of fish leucocytes. Fish Shellfish Immunol 19:441–455CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Schwaiger J, Wanke R, Adam S, Pawert M, Honnen W, Triebskorn R (1997) The use of histopathological indicators to evaluate contaminant-related stress in fish. J Aquat Ecosyst Stress & Recovery 6:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shimada MT, Claudiano GS, Engracia Filho JR, Yunis J, Moraes FR, Moreira RG, Moraes JRE (2014) Hepatic steatosis in cage-reared young cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus, 1766), in Brazil. J Vet Sci Med Diagn 3:2Google Scholar
  25. Spisni E, Tugnoli M, Ponticelli A, Mordenti T, Tomasi V (1998) Hepatic steatosis in artificially fed marine teleosts. J Fish Dis 21:177–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Tanaka Y, Goto M (1991) A histo-anatomical study on the spleens of a frilled shark, Chlamydoselachus anguineus. J Anat 66(1):20–26Google Scholar
  27. Teh SJ, Adams SM, Hinton DE (1997) Histopathologic biomarkers in feral freshwater fish populations exposed to different types of contaminant stress. Aquat Toxicol 37(1):51–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tizard IR (2009) Veterinary immunology: an introduction. Saunders, St. Louis, MoGoogle Scholar
  29. Tomonaga S, Kobayashi K, Kajii T, Awaya K (1984) Two populations of immunoglobulin-forming cells in the skate, Raja kenojei: their distribution and characterization. Dev Comp Immunol 8:803–812CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Wegner NC, Sepulveda CA, Olson KR, Hyndman KA, Graham JB (2010) Functional morphology of the gills of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, a lamnid shark. J Morphol 271:937–948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Wright DE (1973) The structure of the gills of the elasmobranch, Scyliorhinus canicula (L.). Z Zellforsch 144:489–509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julieta Engrácia de Moraes
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jefferson Yunis Aguinaga
    • 2
  • Pedro de Oliveira Viadanna
    • 2
  • Flávio Ruas de Moraes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary PathologySão Paulo State University (Unesp)JaboticabalBrazil
  2. 2.Aquaculture Center of UnespSão Paulo State University (Unesp)JaboticabalBrazil

Personalised recommendations