Is there a pathological relationship between microalbuminuria and Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes in type 2 diabetic patients?
- 160 Downloads
Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders worldwide. Microalbuminuria, one of the complications following elevated glucose levels, is used as a simple and effective method of kidney function analysis in diabetic patients. Early stage diagnosis of microalbuminuria is useful in monitoring and prevention of the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Due to a lower immunity, diabetic patients are more susceptible. Reports have shown that cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA)-positive Helicobacter pylori is one of the effective factors responsible in microalbuminuria pathology. However, a lack of information on the relationship between microalbuminuria in type II diabetes and vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA) is evident. The present study aimed at the relationship between microalbuminuria in type II diabetes and vacA and cagA genes from H. pylori. A total of 88 type II diabetic patients referred to the Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center participated in this study. Nested PCR was performed to exclude host genes, and consequently, H. pylori genotyping was performed based on vacA and cagA. Out of the 88 patients, 68.2 % (60/88) of them have microalbuminuria. A total of 18.2 % of the patients were infected with H. pylori in which 75 % of them showed microalbuminuria and 18.8 % of this group had simultaneously microalbuminuria and expression of cagA. The association between microalbuminuria and H. pylori infection was not statistically significant (p = 0.52). Considering the population size and criteria of choice, statistical analysis did not show any significant relationship between the virulence genes vacA and cagA of H. pylori and microalbuminuria in type II diabetic patients.
KeywordsType II diabetics Microalbuminuria H. pylori vacA gene cagA gene
We are grateful to the study participants, without whom this could not have been completed. Also, we thank the directors, doctors, and personnel of Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center.
- Abdollahi L, Zolfaghari MR, Amini M, Salehi R (2012) The relation between microalbuminuria and Helicobacter Pylori vacA gene in type 2 diabetic patients, Isfahan, Iran. J Isfahan Med Sch 30(179):228–237Google Scholar
- Alamdari MI, Aminisani N, Bashardoost B, Shamshirgaran S, Khodamoradzadeh M, Shokrabadi M, Olomi B (2006) Prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients in a diabetic clinic of Ardabil—Iran. Int J Endocrinol Metab 4(1):8–12Google Scholar
- Ariabod V, Tabrizian F, Jalili D, Hakimitabar M (2009) The prevalence and some risk factors of microalbuminuria among type 2 diabetics that referred to a diabetes clinic. J Med Sci Azad Univ Mashhad 5(2):79–84Google Scholar
- Farshad S, Japoni A, Alborzi A, Kalani M (2008) Genotyping of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric ulcer and non ulcer disease using RFLP-PCR of ureAB, vacA, cagA genes. Sci J Hamadan Uni Med Sci 15(3):11–17Google Scholar
- International Diabetes Federation (2006) Diabetes atlas. Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
- Ibrahim A, Zaher T, Ghonemy T, El-Azim S, El-Azim M, Ramadan A (2010) Impact of cytotoxin-associated gene A of Helicobacter pylori strains on microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 21(4):694–700Google Scholar
- Mikaily J, Malekzadeh R, Ziadalizadeh B, Khoncheh A, Masserat S (1999) Helicobacter pylori prevalence in two Iranian provinces with high and low incidence of gastric carcinoma. Tehran Univ Med J57(1):34–38Google Scholar
- Mojtahedi A, Salehi R, Navabakbar F, Tamizifar H, Andalib A, Safaei H, Tavakkoli H, Farajzadega Z (2007) Apoptosis induction on AGS gastric adenocarcinoma and HEF fibroblast cell lines by wild type and cagA or vacA negative Helicobacter pylori strains. J Sci I R Iran 18(3203):203–208Google Scholar
- Mokhtari M (2002) Evaluation of antibody of Helicobacter pylori infection in preschool children in Isfahan. Iran J Gastroentrol 36:33–38Google Scholar
- Moradi A, Rashidy-Pour A (2000) Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in Semnan. Koomesh 1(4):53–57Google Scholar
- Papazafiropoulou A, Daniil I, Sotiropoulos A, Balampani E, Kokolaki A, Bousboulas S, Konstantopoulou S, Skliros E, Petropoulou D, Pappas S (2010) Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in type 2 diabetic subjects with and without microalbuminuria. BMC Res Notes 3(1):169CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Quadri R, Rossi C, Catalfamo E, Masoero G, Lombardo L, Della Monica P, Rovera L, Pera A, Cavello PP (2000) Helicobacter pylori infection in type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc 10(5):263–266Google Scholar
- Rashki KM, Gol A, Dabiri S (2009) Preventive effects of garlic juice on renal damages induced by diabetes mellitus in rats. Iran J Endocr Metab 11(3):331–339Google Scholar
- Rossi MC, Nicolucci A, Pellegrini F, Comaschi M, Ceriello A, Cucinotta D, Giorda C, Valentini U, Vespasiani G, De Cosmo S (2008) Identifying patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of microalbuminuria: results of the DEMAND (Developing Education on Microalbuminuria for Awareness of reNal and cardiovascular risk in Diabetes) Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 23(4):1278–1284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yazdanpanah K, Rahimi E, Sharifian A, Eishi A (2009) Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in Kurdistan Province, 2006. Sci J Kurdistan Univ Med Sci 14(1):1–8Google Scholar