Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 861–868 | Cite as

Molecular and seroprevalence of imported dengue virus infection in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia

  • Ayman A. El-BadryEmail author
  • Hesham A. El-Beshbishy
  • Khalil H. Al-Ali
  • Ahmed M. Al-Hejin
  • Wael S. M. El-Sayed
Original Article


Recently, urban outbreaks of dengue virus (DENV) have occurred in western areas of Saudi Arabia; Jeddah and Makkah, neighbouring cities to Al-Madinah, where there is growing population traffic. DENV activity has not previously been reported in Al-Madinah. Molecular detection of DENV RNA using type-specific single-step real-time RT-PCR and seroprevalence of anti-DENV antibodies using ELISA was reported among Al-Madinah population for the first time through a cross-sectional study from May 2008 to July 2009. A total of 351 febrile, clinically suspected patients were identified, and acute dengue infection was identified in 71 of them during the first week of onset of fever; 5 (1.4 %) by real-time reverse transcription PCR alone, 45 (12.8 %) cases by IgM-ELISA alone and 13 (3.7 %) by both, while 8 (2.3 %) cases were identified during the second week of fever by the presence of IgM-ELISA only. Anti-DENV IgG antibodies were not detected in any of the tested samples. Of the 71 cases, 55 were resident in Al-Madinah (37 Saudi and 18 non-Saudi); however, all of them were imported cases. DENV-1 and DENV-2 were identified in 7 and 11 cases, respectively, while DENV-3 and DENV-4 were not detected in any cases. It was observed that the middle-aged group was the most infected group. DENV anti-DENV IgM antibodies showed a positive correlation of high significance with the number of days with fever. Nationality and gender were found to be significant independent predictors.


DENV RNA Real-time RT-PCR Anti-DENV antibodies Al-Madinah 



The study was funded by King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) grant no. AT: 27–34.We are grateful to the Vice Rector of Graduate Studies and Academic Research, Taibah University for his support throughout the study. We are also grateful to Al-Mikkat hospital staff especially Dr. Satti and Dr. Khalid Amin, King Fahd hospital, Ministry of Health, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah for blood sample collection and initial processing.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayman A. El-Badry
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hesham A. El-Beshbishy
    • 3
    • 6
  • Khalil H. Al-Ali
    • 2
  • Ahmed M. Al-Hejin
    • 5
  • Wael S. M. El-Sayed
    • 4
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Medical Parasitology, Kasr Al-Ainy School of MedicineCairo UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Medical Laboratories Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical SciencesTaibah UniversityAl-MunawwarahSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Medical Laboratories Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical SciencesTaibah UniversityAl-MunawwarahSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Biology, Faculty of MedicineTaibah UniversityAl-MunawwarahSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department of Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of ScienceKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of PharmacyAl-Azhar UniversityNasr CityEgypt
  7. 7.Microbiology Department, Faculty of ScienceAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt

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