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Ectoparasites of goats in three agroecologies in central Oromia, Ethiopia

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A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in 979 goats in three agroecologies in central Oromia, Ethiopia from October 2009 through April 2010. The results of the study showed that of the total goats examined 487 (49.7 %) of them were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were (16.5 %) Linognathus spp., 8.8 % Sarcoptes, 5 % Ctenocephalides spp. 11.8 % Amblyomma variegatum, 5.9 % Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, 4.3 % Rhipicephalus pravus, 1.6 % Boophilus decoloratus, 1.8 % Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 1.3 % Rhipicephalus praetextatus, and 0.4 % Hyalomma truncatum. Statistically significant (OR = 0.477, p = 0.000) difference was observed in prevalence of Linognathus stenopsis among highland, lowland and midland. Significantly higher prevalence of tick infestation in the lowland than both the midland and highland agroecology was recorded. The risk of tick infestations in lowland and midland was 2.841 and 5.635 times, respectively, higher than in highlands. Age-related variation was not observed in the prevalence of both Linognathus and tick infestations in examined goats. Significantly (OR = 7.864, p = 0.000) higher prevalence of sarcoptic mange in the lowland than the midland was observed. Goats in lowland were 7.864 times at higher risk for sarcoptic mange than those in the midlands. Sex-related variation in the prevalence of ectoparasites was never recorded in goats. Significantly higher prevalence of sarcoptic mange (OR = 0.266, p = 0.000) and Ctenocephalides spp. (OR = 2.430, p = 0.005) on young than adult goats was recorded. The logistic regression results showed statistically significant difference in prevalence of tick infestations (OR = 0.565, p = 0.000) and sarcoptic mange (OR = 0.582, p = 0.003) between goats with poor and good body condition. Further studies on role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to goats, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of goats as alternative hosts in different agroecology and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control program in the country. Furthermore, the threat of ectoparasites on overall productivity of goats and the tanning industry warrants detail studies and urgent control intervention.

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Correspondence to Bersissa Kumsa.

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Beyecha, K., Kumsa, B. & Beyene, D. Ectoparasites of goats in three agroecologies in central Oromia, Ethiopia. Comp Clin Pathol 23, 21–28 (2014).

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