Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 1189–1193 | Cite as

Toxic effects of Nerium oleander aqueous leaf extract on haematological parameters and histopathological changes of the lungs and heart in rabbits

  • Sahar Taheri
  • Amirali Solati
  • Pezhman Moradi
  • Abbas Tavassoly
  • Jafar Yadi
Original Article

Abstract

Oleander is an evergreen plant with leathery leaves and fragrant funnel-shaped flowers that comes in various colours from pink to red, white, peach and yellow and is a well-known poisonous plant containing numerous toxic complexes. Oleandrin and neriine are the most significant compounds of the toxin, which are cardiac glycosides. The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of aqueous oleander leaf extract on haematological parameters and histopathological changes in the heart and lungs of New Zealand White rabbits. For this purpose, animals in the treatment group were treated with sub-lethal dose of aqueous oleander leaf extract over 28 days. At the end of the dosing period, blood samples were collected from all animals, and the effects of oleander exposure on blood parameters were studied. Following euthanization of all rabbits, tissue samples from heart and lungs were collected and processed. Analysis of the haematological data revealed significant increases (p < 0.05) in the red and white blood cell counts and in haemoglobin concentration. However, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in platelet count in treated rabbits compared to the control group. Microscopical examination showed interstitial pneumonia in the lungs and degeneration and necrosis of muscles fibres in the heart. In conclusion, our results showed that oleander extract had toxico-pathologic effects on lung and heart tissues and on haematological indices.

Keywords

Nerium oleander Toxicity Haematology Histopathology 

References

  1. Adams HR (1995) Drugs acting on the cardiovascular system: digitalis and vasodilator drugs. In: Veterinary pharmacology and therapeutic, 7th edn. Iowa State University, Ames, pp 451–481Google Scholar
  2. Al-Farwachi MI, Rhaymah MS, Al-Badrani BA (2008) Acute toxicity of Nerium oleander aqueous leaf extract in rabbits. Iraqi J Vet Sci 22(1):1–4Google Scholar
  3. Andrews EJ (1993) Report of the American Veterinary Medical Association panel on euthanasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 202:229–249Google Scholar
  4. Aslani MR, Movassaghi AR, Mohri M, Abbasian A, Zarehpour M (2004) Clinical and pathological aspect of experiment oleander (Nerium oleander) toxicosis in sheep. Vet Res Commun 28(7):609–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbosa RR, Fontenele-Neto JD, Soto-Blanco B (2008) Toxicity in goats caused by oleander (Nerium oleander). Res Vet Sci 85:279–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cotran RS, Kumar V, Collins T (1999) Robbins pathologic basis of disease. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 7–11Google Scholar
  7. Dacie JV, Lewis SM (1991) Practical haematology, 7th edn. ELBS with Churchill Living Stone, England, pp 37–85Google Scholar
  8. Galey FD, Holstege DM, Pulmee KH, Tor E, Johnson B, Anderson ML, Blanchard PC, Brown F (1996) Diagnosis of oleander poisoning in livestock. J Vet Diagn Investig 8(3):358–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Haeba MH, Mohamed AI, Mehdi AW, Nair GA (2002) Toxicity of Nerium oleander leaf extract in mice. J Environ Biol 23:231–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Henning MW (1932) Animal diseases in South Africa. Vol II: virus and efficiency diseases, plant poisons, 1st edn. Gengra News Agency, South Africa, pp 648–651Google Scholar
  11. Hynes BE, Bessen HA, Wightman WD (1985) Oleander tea: herbal draught of death. Ann Emerg Med 14:350–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Iwata Y, Katanosaka Y, Arai Y, Komamura K, Miyatake K, Higekawa M (2003) A novel mechanism of myocyte degeneration involving the Ca2+-permeable growth factor regulated channel. J Cell Biol 161(5):957–967. doi:10.1083/jcb.200301101 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Langford SD, Boor PJ (1996) Oleander toxicity: an examination of human and animal toxic exposures. Toxicology 109:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li J, Xia Y, Kuter DJ (1999) Interaction of thrombopoietin with the platelet complements receptor in plasma: binding, internalization, stability and pharmacokinetics. Br J Haematol 106(2):345–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mahin L, Marzou A, Huart A (1984) A case report of oleander poisoning in cattle. Vet Hum Toxicol 26:303–304Google Scholar
  16. McCord JM, Gao B, Leff J, Flores SC (1994) Neutrophil-generated free radicals: possible mechanisms of injury in adult respiratory distress syndrome. Environ Health Perspect 102(10):57–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Morowati M (1998) Inhalation toxicity studies of Thimet (Phorate) in the male Swiss albino mouse, Mus musculus: II. Lung histopathology, pseudocholinesterase level and haematological studies. Environ Pollut 103:309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Radostits OM, Gay CC, Blood DC, Hinchcliff KW (2000) Veterinary medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses, 9th edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Shaw DE, Pearn J (1979) Oleander poisoning. Med J Aust 2:267–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Siddiqui S, Bhardwaj S (2009) Allelopathic effect of different concentration of water extract of prosopsis juliflora leaf on seed germination and radicle length of wheat (Triticum aestivum var-lok-1). Am-Euras J Sci Res 4(2):81–84Google Scholar
  21. Solati A, Tavasoly A, Koohi MK, Marjanmehr SH, Rezvanjoo B (2011) Effects of dermal exposure to chlorpyrifos on liver and brain structures and biochemical parameters in rabbits. Comp Clin Pathol. doi:10.1007/s00580-011-1267-7
  22. Soto-Blanco B, Fontenele-Neto JD, Silva DM, Reis PF, Nobrega JE (2006) Acute cattle intoxication from Nerium oleander pods. Trop Anim Health Prod 38:451–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Yousef MI, El-Deerdash FM, Kamel KI, Al-Salhen KS (2003) Changes in some haematological and biochemical indices of rabbits induced by isoflavones and cypermethrin. Toxicology 189:223–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sahar Taheri
    • 1
  • Amirali Solati
    • 2
  • Pezhman Moradi
    • 1
  • Abbas Tavassoly
    • 3
  • Jafar Yadi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of HorticultureIslamic Azad UniversitySavehIran
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary MedicineIslamic Azad UniversitySavehIran
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary PathologyTehran UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations