Skip to main content

Haematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells and serum chemistry in captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) in Thailand

Abstract

The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) is classified as a preserved animal of Thailand. It is listed as an endangered species on the 2008 IUCN red list and also by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Blood samples from captive Malayan tapirs (n = 20, 10 males and 10 females) from five zoos under the Zoological Park Organization of Thailand were examined and measured for complete blood counts, serum chemistry and electrolyte analysis. Cytochemical staining including Peroxidase, Sudan Black B, Periodic acid Schiff's reaction (PAS), α-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) and β-glucuronidase (BG) was also analysed. Statistically significant differences were found between sexes including alkaline phosphatase, total protein and red cell distribution widths. Red blood cells were slightly anisocytosis, (range 4.5–8.5 μm) with 6.3-μm mean diameter. Eosinophils and monocytes were positive with all five cytochemical stains. Lymphocytes showed a variable reaction for ANAE and BG. PAS was positive for all type of blood cells except red blood cells. Ultrastructurally, eosinophils had the largest round shape with three-capsule layer granules which were prominent and distinguishable from other species. This investigation provides basic haematology and serum chemistry analyses as well blood cells identification guideline for the Malayan tapir and serves as endangered mammal reference values.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1-6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  • Carter DC (1984) Perissodactyls. In: Anderson S, Knox Jones JJ (eds) Orders and families of recent mammals of the world. Wiley, New York, pp 549–562

    Google Scholar 

  • Duncan JR, Prasse KW, Mahaffey EA (1994) Veterinary laboratory medicine: clinical pathology, 3rd edn. Iowa State, Ames, pp 37–62

    Google Scholar 

  • Grondin TM, Dewitt SF (2010) Normal hematology of the horse and donkey. In: Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ (eds) Schalm's veterinary hematology. Blackwell, USA, pp 821–828

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayhoe FGJ, Quaglino D (1980) Haematological cytochemistry. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 68–75

    Google Scholar 

  • Henkel KA, Swenson CL, Richardson B et al (1999) Morphology, cytochemical staining and ultrastructure characteristics of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) leukocytes. Vet Clin Pathol 28:8–15. doi:10.1111/j.1939-165X.1999.tb01035.x

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • IUCN (2008) 2008 IUCN Red List of Threated Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org Accessed 13 July 2011

  • ISIS (2002) In: Teare JA (eds) Physiological data reference values for Tapir species. http://www.tapirs.org/Downloads/committees/veterinary/ISIS-tapir-normals.pdf Accessed 12 July 2011

  • Jain NC (1986) Cytochemistry of normal and leukemic leukocytes. In: Schalm OW, Jain NC, Carroll EJ (eds) Schalm's veterinary hematology, 4th edn. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 909–934

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan M (1997) Status and action plan of the Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus). Tapirs-status survey and conservation action Plan, IUCN Gland, Switzerland

    Google Scholar 

  • Lekagul B, McNeely JA (1988) Mammals of Thailand, 2nd edn. Saha Karn Bhaet, Bangkok, pp 648–650

    Google Scholar 

  • Lynam AJ (1999) Camera-trapping reveals the status of Asian tapirs in southern Thailand rainforest remnants. Tapir Conservation 9:9–10

    Google Scholar 

  • Prihirunkit K, Salakij C, Apibal S et al (2007) Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina). J Vet Sci 8:163–168

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raskin RE, Valencaino A (2000) Cytochemistry of normal leukocytes. In: Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds) Schalm's veterinary hematology, 5th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 337–346

    Google Scholar 

  • Salakij C, Salakij J, Rattanakunuprakarn J et al (2000) Morphology and cytochemistry of blood cells from Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus). Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 34:518–525

    Google Scholar 

  • Salakij C, Salakij J, Narkkong NA et al (2005a) Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells in Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus). Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 39:247–261

    Google Scholar 

  • Salakij J, Salakij C, Narkkong NA et al (2005b) Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells in Asian elephant (Elephus maximus). Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 39:482–493

    Google Scholar 

  • Salakij J, Salakij C, Narkkong NA et al (2007) Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells in common palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaproditus). Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 41:705–716

    Google Scholar 

  • Salakij C, Salakij J, Narkkong NA et al (2008a) Hematologic, cytochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular findings of Hepatozoon-infected flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps). Vet ClinPathol 37:31–41. doi:10.1111/j.1939-165X.2008.00011.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salakij C, Prihirunkit K, Narkkong NA et al (2008b) Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells in clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). J Anim Vet Adv 7:847–853

    Google Scholar 

  • Salakij C, Salakij J, Narkkong NA et al (2009a) Haematology, cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in leopard (Panthera pardus). Comp Clin Pathol 18:153–161. doi:10.1007/s00580-008-0774-7

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Salakij C, Salakij J, Narkkong NA et al (2009b) Morphology, cytochemistry and ultra-structure of blood cells in large Indian civet Viverra zibetha (Carnivora, Viverridae). Comp ClinPathol 18:419–426. doi:10.1007/s00580-009-0834-7

    Google Scholar 

  • Salakij C, Salakij J, Prihirunkit K et al (2010) Characterization of blood cells in the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). Vet ClinPathol 39:193–198. doi:10.1111/j.1939-165X.2010.00215.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salakij C, Salakij J, Prihirunkit K et al (2011) Characterization of blood cells in the jungle cat, Felis chaus (Carnivora, Felidae). Comp ClinPathol 20:319–326. doi:10.1007/s00580-010-0996-3

    Google Scholar 

  • Sirosis M (1995) Mosby's fundamental of veterinary technology: veterinary clinical laboratory procedures. Mosby, St Louis, pp 63–79

    Google Scholar 

  • Steffens WL III (2000) Ultrastructural features of leukocytes. In: Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds) Schalm's veterinary hematology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 326–336

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by Thesis and Dissertation Support Fund, the Graduate School, Kasetsart University. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Zoological Park Organization of Thailand and Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Thailand, for research funding. We wish to thank Miss Piyawan Suthunmapinuntra and Miss Nirachara Rochanapat for their assistance in fieldwork.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chaleow Salakij.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Muangkram, Y., Salakij, C., Siriaroonrut, B. et al. Haematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells and serum chemistry in captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) in Thailand. Comp Clin Pathol 22, 1015–1024 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-012-1520-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-012-1520-8

Keywords

  • Cytochemistry
  • Haematology
  • Malayan tapir
  • Serum chemistry
  • Tapirus indicus
  • Ultrastructure