Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp 1669–1675

Diurnal variations in serum biochemical parameters and their correlations with thyroid hormones in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus)

  • S. Nazifi
  • N. Mosleh
  • H. Nili
  • M. Ansari Lari
  • G H Poorghanbari
Original Article


The present study aimed to examine variations in serum biochemical parameters to provide data about the diurnal variation of biochemical parameters in ostriches. This study was performed using blood samples from eight healthy male ostriches, (3 months old), which were in good condition and clinically normal. Diurnal variation of serum biochemical parameters was determined by daily blood collections over 9 days in summer at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University. In serum samples nonelectrolytes (total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and uric acid), electrolytes (calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, and potassium), enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and creatin kinase (CK)), and hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)) were measured by validated standard methods. Most of the study variables showed no significant variations during the study period. However, for blood urea nitrogen, glucose, ALT, K, HDL cholesterol, and CK, significant changes were observed. Correlation coefficients showed significant association of T4 with Na (r = 0.38, P = 0.001), glucose (r = −0.25, P = 0.03), calcium (r = −0.28, P = 0.02), uric acid (r = 0.26, P = 0.03), and creatinine (r = −0.25, P = 0.03). Regarding T3, significant correlation with Na (−0.27, P = 0.02) was observed.


Diurnal variation Serum biochemical parameters Thyroid hormones Ostriches (Struthio camelus


  1. Aguzzi J, Bahamon N, Marotta L (2009) The influence of light availability and predatory behavior of the decapod crustacean Nephrops norvegicus on the activity rhythms of continental margin prey decapods. Mar Ecol 30:366–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alonso-Alvarez C (2005) Age-dependent changes in plasma biochemistry of yellow-legged gulls (Larus cachinnans). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 140:512–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bairlein F (1983) Seasonal variations of serum glucose levels in a migratory songbird, Silvia borin. Comp Biochem Physiol Physiol 76:397–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartha T, Rudas P, Fekete S, Pethes G (1989) Restricted feed intake influences thyroid hormone production and peripheral deiodination in chickens. Acta Vet Hung 37:241–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertoni G, Piccioli Cappelli F, Baldi A, Borghese A, Duranti E, Falasachini A, Formigoni A, Grasso F, Lacetera N, Lupi P, Meluzzi A, Pinna W, Rosi F, Stefanon B, Zicarelli L, Bernabucci U, Campanile G, Moniello G, Trombetta MF (2000) Interpretation of metabolic profiles in farming animals. Prog Nutr 2:51–76Google Scholar
  6. Bobek S, Jastrzebski M, Pietras M (1976) Age-related changes in oxygen consumption and plasma thyroid hormone concentration in the young chicken. Gen Comp Endocrinol 31:169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonadiman SF, Stratievsky GC, Machado JA, Albernaz AP, Rabelo GR, DaMatta RA (2009) Leukocyte ultrastructure, hematological and serum biochemical profiles of ostriches (Struthio camelus). Poult Sci 88:2298–2306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bovera F, Moniello G, De Riu N, Di Meo C, Pinna W, Nizza A (2007) Effect of diet on the metabolic profile of ostriches (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Trop Anim Health Prod 39:265–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brigmon RL, Besch EL, Mather FB (1992) Seasonal temperature and its influence on plasma corticosterone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, plasma protein and packed cell volume in mature male chickens. Comp Biochem Physiol Comp Physiol 102:289–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER (1994) Textbook of clinical chemistry, 2nd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 735–888Google Scholar
  11. Campbell TW (2004) Blood biochemistry of lower vertebrates. In: 55th Annual Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP) and 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Pathology (ASVCP). American College of Veterinary Pathologists and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology, MiddletonGoogle Scholar
  12. Collin A, Buyse J, Van As P, Darras VM, Malheiros RD, Moraes VMB, Reyns GE, Taouis M, Decuypere E (2003) Cold-induced enhancement of avian uncoupling protein expression, heat production, and triiodothyronine concentrations in broiler chicks. Gen Comp Endocrinol 130:70–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dabbert CB, Powell KC (1993) Serum enzymes as indicators of capture myopathy in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). J Wildl Dis 29:304–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Decuypere E, Kühn ER (1984) Effect of fasting and feeding time on circadian rhythms of serum thyroid hormone concentrations, glucose, liver monodeiodinase activity and rectal temperature in growing chickens. Domest Anim Endocrinol 1:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Decuypere E, Van As P, Van der Geyten S, Darras VM (2005) Thyroid hormone availability and activity in avian species: a review. Domest Anim Endocrinol 29:63–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ferrer M (1993) Blood chemistry studies in birds: some applications to ecological problems. Trends Comp Biochem Physiol 1:1031–1044Google Scholar
  17. Ferrer M, Dobado-Berrios P (1998) Factors affecting plasma chemistry values of the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti). Comp Biochem Physiol Mol Integr Physiol 120:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Finco DR (1989) Kidney Function. In: Kaneko JJ (ed) Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals, 4th edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 148–232Google Scholar
  19. Flisinska-Bojanowska A, Komosa M, Gill J (1991) Influence of pregnancy on diurnal and seasonal changes in cortisol, T3 and T4 levels in the mare blood serum. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol 98:23–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Freake HC, Schwartz HL, Oppenheimer JH (1989) The regulation of lipogenesis by thyroid hormones and its contribution of thermogenesis. Endocrinology 125:2868–2874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. García-Rodríguez T, Ferrer M, Carrillo JC, Castroviejo J (1987) Circadian rhythms of determined blood chemistry values in buzzards and eagle owls. Comp Biochem Physiol Physiol 88:663–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gyorffy A, Sayed-Ahmed A, Zsarnovszky A, Vilmos László F, Decuypere E, Bartha T (2009) Effects of energy restriction on thyroid hormone metabolism in chickens. Acta Vet Hung 57:319–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harr KE (2002) Clinical chemistry of companion avian species: a review. Vet Clin Pathol 31:140–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jaensch MJ, Cullen L, Raidal SR (2000) Assessment of liver function in galahs/cockatoos (Eolophus roseicapillus) after partial hepatectomy: a comparison of plasma enzyme concentrations, serum bile acid levels, and galactose clearance tests. J Avian Med Surg 14:164–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kaneko J, Harvey J, Bruss M (1997) Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals, 5th edn. Academic, New York, p 932Google Scholar
  26. Khazraiinia P, Saei S, Mohri M, Haddadzadeh HR, Darvisihha HR, Khaki Z (2006) Serum biochemistry of ostrich (Struthio camelus) in Iran. Comp Clin Pathol 15:87–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Klandorf H, Sharp PJ, Newcomer WS (1981) The influence of feeding patterns on daily variation in the concentrations of plasma thyroid hormones in the hen. IRCS Med Sci 9:82Google Scholar
  28. Klein A, Kulcsar M, Krizsik V, Matics R, Rudas P, Torok J, Huszenicza GY (2006) Effects of environmental temperature on thyroid hormones in the barn owl (Tyto alba). Acta Vet Hung 54:321–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Komosa M, Flisinska-Bojanowska A, Gill J (1990) Development of diurnal rhythm in some metabolic parameters in foals. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol 95:549–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Levy A, Perelman B, Waner T, Van Grevenbroek M, Van Creveld C, Yagil R (1989) Reference blood chemical values in ostrich. Am J Vet Res 50:1548–1550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Lumeij JT (1985) The influence of blood sample treatment on plasma potassium concentrations in avian blood. Avian Pathol 14:257–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lumeij JT (1997) Avian clinical biochemistry. In: Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW, Bruss ML (eds) Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals. Academic, San Diego, pp 857–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lumeij JT, Westerhof I (1987) Blood chemistry for the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease in birds. A review. Vet Q 9:255–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lumeij JT, De Bruijne JJ, Slob A, Wolfswinkel J, Rothuizen J (1988a) Enzyme activities in tissues and elimination half-lives of homologous muscle and liver enzymes in racing pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Avian Pathol 17:851–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lumeij JT, Meidam M, Wolfswinkel J, Van der Hage MH, Dorrestein GM (1988b) Changes in plasma chemistry after drug-induced liver disease or muscle necrosis in racing pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Avian Pathol 17:865–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McNabb FMA, Scanes CG, Zeman M (1998) Endocrine control of development. In: Starck JM, Ricklefs RE (eds) Avian growth and development. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 174–202Google Scholar
  37. Mehner A, Hartfiel W (1983) Handbuch der Geflügelphysiologie. Teil 2. VEB Gustav Fisher Verlag, JenaGoogle Scholar
  38. Merryman JI, Buckles EL (1998) The avian thyroid gland. Part one: a review of the anatomy and physiology. J Avian Med Surg 12:234–237Google Scholar
  39. Mohri M, Narenji Sani R, Masoodi R (2009) Plasma biochemistry of ostrich (Struthio camelus): effects of anticoagulants and comparison with serum. Trop Anim Health Prod 41:845–849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Narendra A, Reid SF, Hemmi JM (2010) The twilight zone: ambient light levels trigger activity in primitive ants. Proc Biol Sci 34:153–181Google Scholar
  41. Nazifi S, Nabinejad A, Sepehrimanesh M, Poorbaghi SL, Farshneshani F, Rahsepar M (2008a) Haematology and serum biochemistry of golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Iran. Comp Clin Pathol 17:197–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nazifi S, Saeb M, Hasankhani M, Ansari-lari M, Ghafari N, Hasanshahi F (2008b) Circadian variations in thyroid hormone levels of nonpregnant uniparous fat-tailed Iranian ewes in summer. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 32:137–140Google Scholar
  43. Oki C, Atkinson S (2004) Diurnal patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormones in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) during summer and winter seasons. Gen Comp Endocrinol 136:289–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Olowookorum MO, Makinde MO, Huchzermeyer FW (1998) A comparative assessment of erythrocyte osmotic fragility, haematological and serum biochemical values in the domestic chicken and the ostrich. Proceedings of the 2nd International Ratite Science Congress, Oudtshoorn, South Africa pp. 99–101Google Scholar
  45. Ozbey O, Esen F (2007) The effects of breeding systems and stocking density on some blood parameters of rock partridges (Alectoris graeca). Poult Sci 86:420–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Palomeque J, Pinto D, Viscor G (1991) Hematologic and blood chemistry values of the Masai ostrich (Struthio camelus). J Wildl Dis 27:34–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Pérez-Rodríguez L, Alonso-Alvarez C, Martínez-Haro M, Viñuela J (2008) Variation in plasma biochemical parameters in captive adult red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) during daylight hours. Eur J Wildl Res 54:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Polat U, Cetin M, Turkyilmaz O, Ak I (2003) Effects of different dietary protein levels on the biochemical and production parameters of ostriches (Struthio camelus). Vet Arhiv 73:73–80Google Scholar
  49. Quintavalla F, Bigliardi E, Bertoni P (2001) Blood biochemical baseline values in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Ann Fac Med Vet 21:61–71Google Scholar
  50. Redher NB, Bird DM, Lague PC, Mackay C (1982) Variation in selected hematological parameters of captive red-tailed hawks. J Wildl Dis 18:105–109Google Scholar
  51. Rodríguez P, Tortosa F, Villafuerte R (2005) The effects of fasting and refeeding on biochemical parameters in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 140:157–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rodríguez P, Tortosa FS, Gortázar C (2006) Daily variations of blood biochemical parameters in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). Eur J Wildl Res 52:277–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schalm OW, Jain NC, Carrol EJ (1975) Veterinary hematology, 3rd edn. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, p 807Google Scholar
  54. Schaub R, Prinzinger R (1999) Long-term telemetry of heart rates and energy metabolic rate during the diurnal cycle in normothermic and torpid African blue-naped moosebirds (Urocolius macrourus). Comp Biochem Physiol Physiol 124:439–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Scholtz N, Halle I, Flachowsky G, Sauerwein H (2009) Serum chemistry reference values in adult Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) including sex-related differences. Poult Sci 88:1186–1190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sibley CG, Ahlquist JE (1990) Ratites and tinamous. In: Phylogeny and classification of birds. Yale University Press, London, pp 272–288Google Scholar
  57. Sturgess I, Thomas SH, Pennell DJ, Mitchell D, Croft DN (1989) Diurnal variation in TSH and free thyroid hormones in patients on thyroxine replacement. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 121:674–676Google Scholar
  58. Van Heerden J, Dauth J, Jarvis MJ, Keffen RH, Denny JE, Dreyer MJ, Kriek NP (1985) Blood chemical and electrolyte concentrations in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). J S Afr Vet Assoc 56:75–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Verstappen FALM, Lumeij JT, Bronneberg RGG (2002) Plasma chemistry reference values in ostriches. J Wildl Dis 38:154–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Wingfield JC, Silverin B (2002) Ecophysiological studies of hormone–behavior relations in birds. Integr Comp Biol 42:600–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Nazifi
    • 1
  • N. Mosleh
    • 1
  • H. Nili
    • 1
  • M. Ansari Lari
    • 2
  • G H Poorghanbari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary MedicineShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.Department of Food Hygiene, School of Veterinary MedicineShiraz UniversityShirazIran

Personalised recommendations