Mycorrhizal detection of native and non-native truffles in a historic arboretum and the discovery of a new North American species, Tuber arnoldianum sp. nov.
During a study comparing the ectomycorrhizal root communities in a native forest with those at the Arnold Arboretum in Massachusetts (USA), the European species Tuber borchii was detected on the roots of a native red oak in the arboretum over two successive years. Since T. borchii is an economically important edible truffle native to Europe, we conducted a search of other roots in the arboretum to determine the extent of colonization. We also wanted to determine whether other non-native Tuber species had been inadvertently introduced into this 140-year-old Arboretum because many trees were imported into the site with intact soil and roots prior to the 1921 USDA ban on these horticultural practices in the USA. While T. borchii was not found on other trees, seven other native and exotic Tuber species were detected. Among the North American Tuber species detected from ectomycorrhizae, we also collected ascomata of a previously unknown species described here as Tuber arnoldianum. This new species was found colonizing both native and non-native tree roots. Other ectomycorrhizal taxa that were detected included basidiomycetes in the genera Amanita, Russula, Tomentella, and ascomycetes belonging to Pachyphlodes, Helvella, Genea, and Trichophaea. We clarify the phylogenetic relationships of each of the Tuber species detected in this study, and we discuss their distribution on both native and non-native host trees.
KeywordsTuber borchii Root mantle cystidia Urban landscape Fungal introduction
Zurier received funding for this project from the Microbial Science Initiative at Harvard University. Healy received funding from the Sargent Award through the Arnold Arboretum. Matthew E. Smith received funding from the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under award number FLA-PLP-005289 and his participation was also made possible via support by the Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences at University of Florida. Bonito thanks Michigan State University’s AgBioResearch for research support. Charles Lefevre of New World Trufflieres Inc. is thanked for his helpful discussion regarding the likelihood of Tuber borchii introduction to New England through inoculated roots. Peter Avis is thanked for help with methods. Michael Dosmann, Kathryn Richardson, and Faye Rosin of the Arnold Arboretum are thanked for facilitating this project. The Farlow Herbarium curators are thanked for help with vouchers.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
- Berch SM (2013) Truffle cultivation and commercially harvested native truffles. In Proceedings of international symposium on forest mushroom. Korea Forest Research Institute and Korean Forest Mushroom Society (pp. 85–97)Google Scholar
- Bonito GM, Trappe JM, Vilgalys R (2009) North American truffles in the Tuberaceae: molecular and morphological perspectives. Proceedings of the 5th international workshop on edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. Chuxiong, China. Acta Bot Yunnanica Suppl 16:39–51Google Scholar
- Bonito GM, Gryganskyi AP, Trappe JM, Vilgalys R (2010a) A global meta-analysis of Tuber ITS rDNA sequences: species diversity, host associations and long-distance dispersal. Mol Ecol 19(22):4994–5008Google Scholar
- Bonito G, Trappe JM, Rawlinson P, Vilgalys R (2010b) Improved resolution of major clades within Tuber and taxonomy of species within the Tuber gibbosum complex. Mycologia 102(5):1042–1057Google Scholar
- Ceruti A, Fontana A, Nosenzo C (2003) Le specie Europee del genere Tuber, Una revisione storica, Regione Piemonte, TorinoGoogle Scholar
- Colgan W, Trappe JM (1997) NATS truffle and truffle-like fungi 7: Tuber anniae sp. nov. (Ascomycota). Mycotaxon 64:437–442Google Scholar
- Drummond AJ, Ashton B, Buxton S, Cheung M, Cooper A, Duran C, Heled J, Kearse M, Markowitz S, Moir R, Stones-Havas S, Sturrock S, Swidan F, Thierer T, Wilson A (2012) Geneious:v5.6Google Scholar
- Fan L, Cao J-Z, Li Y (2012a) Tuber microsphaerosporum and Paradoxa sinensis spp. nov. Mycotaxon 120:471–475Google Scholar
- Fan L, Cao J-Z, Yu J (2012b) Tuber in China: T. sinopuberulum and T. vesicoperidium spp. nov. Mycotaxon 121:255–263Google Scholar
- Hay I (1995) Science in the pleasure ground: a history of the Arnold Arboretum. Northeastern University Press, Boston, Mass.Google Scholar
- Karpati AS (2010) Ectomycorrhizal communities and ecological restoration: status and performance in urban conditions (Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University-Graduate School-New Brunswick)Google Scholar
- Ławrynowicz M (2009) Four Tuber species accompanying T. mesentericum in natural sites in Poland. Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 66S1: 145–149Google Scholar
- Lockwood JL, Hoopes MF, Marchetti MP (2007) Invasion ecology. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
- Miller MA, Pfeiffer W, Schwartz T (2010) Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. In Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), 2010: 1–8. IEEEGoogle Scholar
- O’Connell S (2010) Truffles – black gold in North Carolina. Uptown Magazine May 14Google Scholar
- Rambaut A (2007) Se-Al: Sequence Alignment Editor, http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/seal/
- Rambaut A, Drummond AJ (2007) Tracer v1.4: http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk/Tracer
- Sharma J, Trela B, Wang S, Smith M, Bonito G (2012) Pecan truffle (Tuber lyonii) in Texas. Pecan South December 2012: 16–24Google Scholar
- Smith M, Bonito G, Sharma J, Long J, Davis-Long B, Brenneman T (2012) Pecan truffles (Tuber lyonii): what we know and what we need to know. Georgia Pecan Magazine Spring: 52–59Google Scholar
- Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Beaver K, Kõljalg U (2007) Ectomycorrhizal fungi of the Seychelles: diversity patterns and host shifts from the native Vateriopsis seychellarum (Dipterocarpaceae) and Intsia bijuga (Caesalpiniaceae) to the introduced Eucalyptus robusta (Myrtaceae), but not Pinus caribea (Pinaceae). New Phytol 175:321–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (1921) Service and Regulatory Announcements, Issue 70 (p. 30). U.S. G.P.PGoogle Scholar