Diversity of ectomycorrhizal Thelephoraceae in Tuber melanosporum-cultivated orchards of Northern Spain

Abstract

Truffles are edible hypogeous ascomycetes highly appreciated worldwide, especially the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.). In recent decades, the cultivation of the black truffle has expanded across the Mediterranean climate regions in and outside its native range. Members of the Thelephoraceae (Thelephorales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) are commonly found in truffle plantations, but their co-occurrence with Tuber species and other members of the fungal community has been scarcely reported. Thelephoraceae is one of the most represented families of the ectomycorrhizal fungal community in boreal and Mediterranean forests. To reveal the diversity of these fungi in T. melanosporum-cultivated plantations, ten orchards located in the Navarra region (Northern Spain) were surveyed for 2 years. Morphological and molecular approaches were used to detect and identify the Thelephoraceae ectomycorrhizas present in those plantations. Ten different mycorrhizal types were detected and described. Four of them were morphologically identified as Tomentella galzinii, Quercirhiza cumulosa, Q. squamosa, and T39 Thelephoraceae type. Molecular analyses revealed 4–6 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), depending on the nucleotide database used, but similarities remained under 95 % and no clear species assignments could be done. The results confirm the diversity and abundance of this fungal family in the ectomycorrhizal community of black truffle plantations, generally established in Mediterranean areas. The occurrence and relative abundance of Thelephoraceae ectomycorrhizas is discussed in relation to their possible influence on truffle production.

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Acknowledgments

Authors would like to thank Navarra’s truffle plantation owners for their invaluable collaboration through the years. This study was supported by Gobierno de Navarra—Educación (2005 Project) and the Spanish Ministry of Economy MINECO project AGL 2012-40035-C03.

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Correspondence to Javier Parladé.

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De Miguel, A.M., Águeda, B., Sáez, R. et al. Diversity of ectomycorrhizal Thelephoraceae in Tuber melanosporum-cultivated orchards of Northern Spain. Mycorrhiza 26, 227–236 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-015-0665-0

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Keywords

  • Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity
  • Quercirhiza squamosa
  • Tomentella
  • Pseudotomentella
  • Truffle plantations