Skip to main content

Ectomycorrhizal lifestyle in fungi: global diversity, distribution, and evolution of phylogenetic lineages

Abstract

The ectomycorrhizal (EcM) symbiosis involves a large number of plant and fungal taxa worldwide. During studies on EcM diversity, numerous misidentifications, and contradictory reports on EcM status have been published. This review aims to: (1) critically assess the current knowledge of the fungi involved in the EcM by integrating data from axenic synthesis trials, anatomical, molecular, and isotope studies; (2) group these taxa into monophyletic lineages based on molecular sequence data and published phylogenies; (3) investigate the trophic status of sister taxa to EcM lineages; (4) highlight other potentially EcM taxa that lack both information on EcM status and DNA sequence data; (5) recover the main distribution patterns of the EcM fungal lineages in the world. Based on critically examining original reports, EcM lifestyle is proven in 162 fungal genera that are supplemented by two genera based on isotopic evidence and 52 genera based on phylogenetic data. Additionally, 33 genera are highlighted as potentially EcM based on habitat, although their EcM records and DNA sequence data are lacking. Molecular phylogenetic and identification studies suggest that EcM symbiosis has arisen independently and persisted at least 66 times in fungi, in the Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, and Zygomycota. The orders Pezizales, Agaricales, Helotiales, Boletales, and Cantharellales include the largest number of EcM fungal lineages. Regular updates of the EcM lineages and genera therein can be found at the UNITE homepage http://unite.ut.ee/EcM_lineages. The vast majority of EcM fungi evolved from humus and wood saprotrophic ancestors without any obvious reversals. Herbarium records from 11 major biogeographic regions revealed three main patterns in distribution of EcM lineages: (1) Austral; (2) Panglobal; (3) Holarctic (with or without some reports from the Austral or tropical realms). The holarctic regions host the largest number of EcM lineages; none are restricted to a tropical distribution with Dipterocarpaceae and Caesalpiniaceae hosts. We caution that EcM-dominated habitats and hosts in South America, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Australia remain undersampled relative to the north temperate regions. In conclusion, EcM fungi are phylogenetically highly diverse, and molecular surveys particularly in tropical and south temperate habitats are likely to supplement to the present figures. Due to great risk of contamination, future reports on EcM status of previously unstudied taxa should integrate molecular identification tools with axenic synthesis experiments, detailed morphological descriptions, and/or stable isotope investigations. We believe that the introduced lineage concept facilitates design of biogeographical studies and improves our understanding about phylogenetic structure of EcM fungal communities.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Abadie J-C, Püttsepp Ü, Gebauer G, Faccio A, Bonfante P, Selosse M-A (2006) Cephalanthera longifolia (Neottieae, Orchidaceae) is mixotrophic: a comparative study between green and nonphotosynthetic individuals. Can J Bot 84:1462–1477

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R (ed) (1987–2006) Colour atlas of Ectomycorrhizae. Einhorn-Verlag, Schwäbisch Gmünd

  • Agerer R (1990) Studies on ectomycorrhizae XXIV. Ectomycorrhizae of Chroogomphus helveticus and C. rutilus (Gomphidiaceae, Basidiomycetes) and their relationship to those of Suillus and Rhizopogon. Nova Hedwig 50:1–63

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R (1991a) Ectomycorrhizae of Sarcodon imbricatus on Norway spruce and their chlamydospores. Mycorrhiza 1:21–30

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R (1991b) Studies on ectomycorrhizae XXXIV. Mycorrhizae of Gomphidius glutinosus and of G. roseus with some remarks on Gomphidiaceae (Basidiomycetes). Nova Hedwig 53:127–170

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R (1992a) Ectomycorrhizae of Phellodon niger on Norway spruce and their chlamydospores. Mycorrhiza 2:47–52

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R (1992b) Studies on ectomycorrhizae XLIV. Ectomycorrhizae of Boletopsis leucomelaena (Thelephoraceae, Basidiomycetes) and their relationship to an unidentified ectomycorrhiza. Nova Hedwig 55:501–518

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R (1993) Ectomycorrhizae of Hydnellum peckii on Norway spruce and their chlamydospores. Mycologia 85:74–83

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R (1994) Pseudotomentella tristis (Thelephoraceae): Eine Analyse von Fruchtkcirper und Ektomykorrhizen. Z Mykol 60:143–158

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R (1996a) Albatrellus ovinus (Schaeff.: Fr.) Kotl. & Pouz.+Picea abies (L) Karst. Descr Ectomyc 1:23–28

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R (1996b) Ramaria aurea (Schaeff.: Fr.) Quel.+Fagus sylvatica L. Descr Ectomyc 1:107–112

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R (1999) Gyroporus cyanescens (Bull.: Fr.) Quel.+Pinus sylvestris L. Descr Ectomyc 4:43–47

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R (2006) Fungal relationships and structural identity of their ectomycorrhizae. Mycol Progr 5:67–107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R, Beenken L (1998a) Geastrum fimbriatum Fr. + Fagus sylvatica L. Descr Ectomyc 3:13–18

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R, Beenken L (1998b) Lyophyllum decastes (Fr.) Sing. + Quercus robur L. Descr Ectomyc 3:43–47

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R, Otto P (1997) Bankera fuligineo-alba (J. C. Schmidt: Fr.) Pouzar + Pinus sylvestris L. Descr Ectomyc 2:1–6

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R, Waller K (1993) Mycorrhizae of Entoloma saepium: parasitism or symbiosis? Mycorrhiza 3:145–154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R, Kraigher H, Javornik B (1996) Identification of ectomycorrhizae of Hydnum rufescens on Norway spruce and the variability of the ITS region of H. rufescens and H. repandum (Basidiomycetes). Nova Hedwig 63:183–194

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R, Beenken L, Ammirati J (1998a) Polyporoletus sublividus Snell + Abies amabilis Forb. Descr Ectomyc 3:85–91

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R, Beenken L, Christan J (1998b) Gomphus clavatus (Pers.: Fr.) S. F. Gray + Picea abies (L.) Karst. Descr Ectomyc 3:25–29

    Google Scholar 

  • Agerer R, Beenken L, Bougher NL (2001) Descomyces albus + Eucalyptus sp. Descr Ectomyc 5:41–47

    Google Scholar 

  • Albee-Scott S (2007) The phylogenetic placement of Leucogastrales, including Mycolevis siccigleba (Cribbeaceae), in the Albatrellacae using morphological and molecular data. Mycol Res 111:653–662

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alvarez IF, Parladé J (1992) Loculotuber gennadii gen. et comb. nov. and Tuber multimaculatum sp. nov. Mycologia 84:926–929

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amicucci A, Zambonelli A, Guidi C, Stocchi V (2001) Morphological and molecular characterisation of Pulvinula constellatio ectomycorrhizae. FEMS Microbiol Lett 194:121–125

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ammarellou A, Saremi H, Fucin F (2007) Evaluation of morphology, cytology and mycorrhizal relationships of desert truffles (Terfezia boudieri) in Iran. Pak J Biol Sci 10:1486–1490

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Antibus RK, Croxdale JG, Miller OK, Linkins AE (1981) Ectomycorrhizal fungi of Salix rotundifolia. III. Resynthesized mycorrhizal complexes and their surface phosphate activities. Can J Bot 59:2458–2465

    Google Scholar 

  • Arora D (1986) Mushrooms demystified, 2nd edn. Ten Speed, Berkeley

    Google Scholar 

  • Ashton DH (1976) Studies on the mycorrhizae of Eucalyptus regnans. Aust J Bot 24:723–741

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Auckland Fungus Group (2009) New Zealand fungi. http://www.fungi.co.nz/

  • Avis PG, McLaughlin DJ, Dentinger BC, Reich PB (2003) Long-term increase in nitrogen supply alters above-and belowground ectomycorrhizal communities and increases the dominance of Russula spp. in a temperate oak savanna. New Phytol 160:239–253

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Avis PG, Mueller GM, Lussenhop J (2008) Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in two North American oak forests respond to nitrogen addition. New Phytol 179:472–483

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baar J, Horton TR, Kretzer AM, Bruns TD (1999) Mycorrhizal colonization of Pinus muricata from resistant propagules after a stand-replacing wildfire. New Phytol 143:409–418

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Becerra A, Nouhra E, Daniele G, Dominguez L, McKay D (2005a) Ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes and Gyrodon monticola with Alnus acuminata from Argentina. Mycorrhiza 15:7–15

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Becerra A, Pritsch K, Arrigo N, Palma M, Bartoloni N (2005b) Ectomycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata in northwestern Argentina in relation to season and soil parameters. Ann For Sci 62:325–332

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beenken L (2004) Die Gattung Russula. Untersuchungen zu ihrer Systematik anhand von Ektomykorrhizen. PhD Thesis. Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Munich. 414 pp

  • Bencivenga M, Di Massimo G, Donnini D, Tanfulli M (1995) Micorrize inquinanti frequenti nelle piante tartufigene. Nota 1- Inquinanti in vivaio. Micol Ital 1995:167–178

    Google Scholar 

  • Berbee ML, Taylor JW (2001) Fungal molecular evolution: gene trees and geologic time. The Mycota 7B:229–245

    Google Scholar 

  • Bergemann SE, Garbelotto M (2006) High diversity of fungi recovered from the roots of mature tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) in northern California. Can J Bot 84:1380–1394

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bidartondo MI, Read DJ (2008) Fungal specificity bottlenecks during orchid germination and development. Mol Ecol 17:3707–3716

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bidartondo MI, Bruns TD, Weiß M, Sergio C, Read DJ (2003) Specialized cheating of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis by an epiparasitic liverwort. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:835–842

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Binder M, Hibbett DS (2002) Higher level phylogenetic relationships of Homobasidiomycetes (mushroom-forming fungi) inferred from four rDNA regions. Mol Phylogenet Evol 22:76–90

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Binder M, Hibbett DS (2006) Molecular systematics and biological diversification of Boletales. Mycologia 98:971–983

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bokor R (1958) Vizsgálatok a tölgyek valódi mykorrhiza gombáinak meghatározása és az ezekkel való társulásuknak mesterséges létrehozása terén. Erdésztud Közl 1:93–118

    Google Scholar 

  • Bougher NL, Malajczuk N (1985) A new species of Descolea (Agaricales) from Western Australia, and aspects of its ectomycorrhizal status. Aust J Bot 33:619–627

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bougher NL, Malajczuk N (1990) Effects of high soil moisture on formation of ectomycorrhizas and growth of karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor) seedlings inoculated with Descolea maculata, Pisolithus tinctorius and Laccaria laccata. New Phytol 114:87–91

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bratek Z, Jakucs E, Bóka K, Szedlay G (1996) Mycorrhizae between black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and Terfezia terfezioides. Mycorrhiza 6:271–274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brock PM, Döring H, Bidartondo MI (2009) How to know unknown fungi: the role of a herbarium. New Phytol 181:719–724

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brundrett MC (2004) Diversity and classification of mycorrhizal associations. Biol Rev 79:473–495

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brundrett MC (2009) Mycorrhizal associations and other means of nutrition of vascular plants: understnding global diversity of host plants by resolving conflicting information and developing reliable means of diagnosis. Plant Soil 320:37–77

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brundrett MC, Kendrick B (1987) The relationship between and the ash bolete (Boletinellus merulioides) and an aphid parasitic on ash tree roots. Symbiosis 3:315–320

    Google Scholar 

  • Brundrett MC, Bougher N, Dell B, Grove T, Malajczuk N (1996) Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture. ACIAR Monogr 21:1–374

    Google Scholar 

  • Brundrett MC, Malajczuk N, Mingqin G, Daping X, Snelling S, Dell B (2005) Nursery inoculation of Eucalyptus seedlings in western Australia and Southern China using spores and mycelial inoculum of diverse ectomycorrahizal fungi from different climatic regions. For Ecol Manag 209:193–205

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bruns TD, Shefferson RP (2004) Evolutionary studies of ectomycorrhizal fungi: recent advances and future directions. Can J Bot 82:1122–1132

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bryan WC, Zak B (1961) Synthetic culture of mycorrhizae of southern pines. For Sci 7:123–129

    Google Scholar 

  • Burgess TI, Malajczuk N, Grove TS (1993) The ability of 16 ectomycorrhizal fungi to increase growth and phosphorus uptake of Eucalyptus globulus and E. diversicolor. Plant Soil 153:155–164

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buscot F, Kottke I (1990) The association of Morchella rotunda with roots of Picea abies. New Phytol 116:425–430

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Butler EJ (2008) The fungi of India. Daya, Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Buyck B, Thoen D, Watling R (1996) Ectomycorrhizal fungi in the Congo-Guinea region. Proc R Soc Edinb 104B:313–333

    Google Scholar 

  • Buyck B, Hofstetter V, Eberhardt U, Verbeken A, Kauff F (2008) Walking the thin line between Russula and Lactarius: the dilemma of Russula subsect Ochricompactae. Fungal Divers 28:15–40

    Google Scholar 

  • Cairney JWG, Rees BJ, Allaway WG, Ashford AE (1994) A basidiomycete isolated from a Pisonia mycorrhiza forms sheating mycorrhizas with transfer cells in Pisonia grandis. New Phytol 121:91–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caldwell B, Jumpponen A, Trappe JM (2000) Utilization of major detrital substrates by dark-septate, root endophytes. Mycologia 92:230–232

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Castellano MA (1995) NATS truffle and truffle-like fungi 4:Amogaster viridigleba gen. et sp. nov., a new truffle-like fungus from the Sierra Nevada. Mycotaxon 55:185–188

    Google Scholar 

  • Castellano MA, Trappe JM (1992) Australasian truffle-like fungi. VI. Gigasperma (Basidiomycotina, Tricholomataceae) and Horakiella gen. nov. (Basidiomycotina, Sclerodermataceae). Aust Syst Bot 5:639–643

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Castellano MA, Trappe JM, Lodge DJ (2007) Mayamontana coccolobae (Basidiomycota), a new sequestrate taxon from Belize. Mycotaxon 100:289–294

    Google Scholar 

  • Ceruti A, Bussetti L (1962) Sulla simbiosi micorrizika tra tigli e Boletus subtomentosus, Russula grisea, Balsamia platyspora e Hysterangium clathroides. Allionia 8:55–66

    Google Scholar 

  • Chilvers GA (1968) Some distinctive types of eucalypt mycorrhiza. Aust J Bot 16:49–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chu-Chou M, Grace LJ (1981) Hydnangium carneum, a mycorrhizal fungus of Eucalyptus in New Zealand. Trans Br Mycol Soc 77:650–651

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clemmensen KE, Michelsen A, Jonasson S, Shaver GR (2006) Increased ectomycorrhizal abundance after long-term fertilization and warming of two arctic tundra ecosystems. New Phytol 171:391–404

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cline ET, Ammirati JF, Edmonds RL (2005) Does proximity to mature trees influence ectomycorrhizal fungus communities of Douglas-fir seedlings? New Phytol 166:993–1009

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corner EJH (1969) Notes on cantharelloid fungi. Nova Hedwig 18:783–818

    Google Scholar 

  • Courty P-E, Franc A, Pierrat J-C, Garbaye J (2008) Temporal changes in the ectomycorrhizal community in two soil horizons of a temperate oak forest. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:5792–5801

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cripps CL, Miller OK (1995) Ectomycorrhizae formed in vitro by quaking aspen: including Inocybe lacera and Amanita pantherina. Mycorrhiza 5:357–370

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cullings KV, Makhija S (2001) Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:5538–5543

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cullings KV, Vogler DR, Parker VT, Finley SK (2000) Ectomycorrhizal specificity patterns in a mixed Pinus contorta and Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:4988–4991

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dahlberg A, Jonsson L, Nylund J-E (1997) Species diversity and distribution of biomass above and below ground among ectomycorrhizal fungi in an oldgrowth Norway spruce forest in south Sweden. Can J Bot 75:1323–1335

    Google Scholar 

  • Dahlström JL, Smith JE, Weber NS (2000) Mycorrhiza-like interaction by Morchella with species of the Pinaceae in pure culture synthesis. Mycorrhiza 9:279–285

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Danell E (1994) Formation and growth of ectomycorrhiza of Cantharellus cibarius. Mycorrhiza 5:89–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Danielson RM (1984a) Ectomycorrhiza formation by the operculate discomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea (Pezizales). Mycologia 76:454–461

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Danielson RM (1984b) Ectomycorrhizal associations in jack pine stands in northeastern Alberta. Can J Bot 62:932–939

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Danielson RM, Pruden M (1989) The ectomycorrhizal status of urban spruce. Mycologia 81:335–341

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Danielson RM, Visser S (1988) Ectomycorrhizae of Jack pine and green alder: assessment of the need for inoculation, development of inoculation techniques and outplanting trials on oil sand tailings. Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council, report RRTAC 88-5

  • Dawson TE, Mambelli S, Plamboeck A, Templer PH, Tu KP (2002) Stable isotopes in plant ecology. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 33:507–559

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Meijer AAR (2001) Mycological work in the Brazilian state of Parana. Nova Hedwig 72:105–159

    Google Scholar 

  • de Roman M, Claveria V, de Miguel AM (2005) A revision of the descriptions of ectomycorrhizas published since 1961. Mycol Res 109:1063–1104

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dell B, Malajczuk N, Grove TS, Thomson G (1990) Ectomycorrhiza formation in Eucalyptus. IV. Ectomycorrhizas in the sporocarps of the hypogeous fungi Mesophellia and Castorium in Eucalypt forests of Western Australia. New Phytol 114:449–456

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Delwiche CC, Zinke PJ, Johnson CM, Virginia RA (1978) Nitrogen isotope distribution as a presumptive indicator of nitrogen fixation. Bot Gaz 140:S65–S69

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • den Bakker HC, Zuccarello GC, Kuyper YW, Noordeloos ME (2004) Evolution and host specificity in the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum. New Phytol 163:201–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dennis RWG (1970) Fungus flora of Venezuela and adjacent countries. Kew Bull Addit Ser 3:1–530

    Google Scholar 

  • Dennis RWG (1974) New or interesting British microfungi, III. Kew Bull 30:345–365

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Desjardin DE, Wilson AW, Binder M (2008) Durianella, a new gasteroid genus of boletes from Malaysia. Mycologia 100:956–961

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dexheimer J, Gerard J, Leduc J-P, Chevalier G (1985) Etude ultrastructuale comparee ses associations symbiotiques mycorhiziennes Helianthemum salicifolium-Terflezia claveryi et Helianthemum salicifolium-Terfezia leptoderma. Can J Bot 63:582–591

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dickie IA, Reich PB (2005) Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at forest edges. J Ecol 93:244–255

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dickie IA, Xu B, Koide RT (2002) Vertical niche differentiation of ectomycorrhizal hyphae in soil as shown by T-RFLP analysis. New Phytol 156:527–535

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diez J (2005) Invasion biology of Australian ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced with eucalypt plantations into the Iberian Peninsula. Biol Invas 7:3–15

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dissing H, Korf RP (1980) Preliminary studies in the genera Ruhlandiella, Sphaerosoma, and Sphaerozone (order Pezizales). Mycotaxon 12:287–306

    Google Scholar 

  • Doak KD (1934) Fungi that produce ectotrophic mycorrhizae of conifers. Phytopathology 24:7 abstr

    Google Scholar 

  • Douglas RB, Parker VT, Cullings KW (2005) Belowground ectomycorrhizal community structure of mature lodgepole pine and mixed conifer stands in Yellowstone National Park. For Ecol Manag 208:303–317

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dunabeitia MK, Hormilla S, Salcedo I, Pena J (1996) Ectomycorrhizae synthesized between Pinus radiata and eight fungi associated with Pinus spp. Mycologia 88:897–908

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dunabeitia MK, Rodrıguez N, Salcedo I, Sarrionandia E (2004) Field mycorrhization and its influence on the establishment and development of the seedlings in a broadleaf plantation in the Basque Country. For Ecol Manag 195:129–139

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eberhardt U, Walter L, Kottke I (1999) Molecular and morphological discrimination between Tylospora fibrillosa and Tylospora asterophora mycorrhizae. Can J Bot 77:11–21

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Egger KN (1995) Molecular analysis of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. Can J Bot 73:S1415–S1422

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Egger KN (1996) Molecular systematics of E-strain mycorrhizal fungi: Wilcoxina and its relationship to Tricharina (Pezizales). Can J Bot 74:773–779

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Egger KN (2006) The surprising diversity of ascomycetous mycorrhizas. New Phytol 170:421–423

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Egger KN, Hibbett DS (2004) The evolutionary implications of exploitation in mycorrhizas. Can J Bot 82:1110–1121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Egger KN, Paden JW (1986) Biotrophic associations between lodgepole pine seedlings and postfire ascomycetes (Pezizales) in monoxenic culture. Can J Bot 64:2719–2725

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Erland S, Söderström B, Andersson S (1990) Effects of liming on ectomycorrhizal fungi infecting Pinus sylvestris L. II. Growth rates in pure culture at different pH values compared to growth rates in symbiosis with the host plant. New Phytol 115:683–688

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Erland S, Jonsson T, Mahmood S, Finlay RD (1999) Belowground ectomycorrhizal community structure in two Picea abies forests in Southern Sweden. Scand J For Res 14:209–217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Erös-Honti Z, Kovács GM, Szedlay G, Jakucs E (2008) Morphological and molecular characterization of Humaria and Genea ectomycorrhizae from Hungaraian deciduous forests. Mycorrhiza 18:133–143

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fassi B (1957) Ectomycorrhizes chez le Gnetum africanum Welw. Due a Scleroderma sp. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 73:280–286

    Google Scholar 

  • Fassi B, de Vecchi E (1963) Ricerche sulle micorrize ectotrofiche del pino strobo in vivaio. I. Descrizione di alcune forme piu diffuse in Piemonte. Allionia 8:133–152

    Google Scholar 

  • Fassi B, Fontana A (1966) Ricerche sulle micorrize ectotrofiche del pino strobo in vivaio. II. Micorrize di Thelephora terrestris, Laccaria laccata et Hebeloma mesophaeum. Allionia 12:47–53

    Google Scholar 

  • Fassi B, Fontana A (1967) Sintesi micorrizica tra Pinus strobus e Tuber maculatum. I. Micorrize e sviluppo dei semenzali nel secondo anno. Allionia 13:177–186

    Google Scholar 

  • Fassi B, Fontana A, Trappe JM (1969) Mycorrhizae formed by Endogone lactiflua with species of Pinus and Pseudotsuga. Mycologia 61:412–414

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferdinandsen Ö, Winge C (1925) Cenococcum Fr. A monographic study. Kong Vet Landbohojskole 1925:332–382

    Google Scholar 

  • Fernando AA, Currah RS (1995) Leptodontidium orchidicola (Mycelium radicis atrovirens complex): aspects of its conidiogenesis and ecology. Mycotaxon 54:287–294

    Google Scholar 

  • Fernando AA, Currah RS (1996) A comparative study of the effects of the root endophytes Leptodontidium orchidicola and Phialocephala fortinii (Fungi Imperfecti) on the growth of some subalpine plants in culture. Can J Bot 74:1071–1078

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferreira dos Santos N (1941) Elementos para estudo das micorrizas ectendotróficas do Pinus pinaster. Sol Pub Serv Florestais Aquic Portugal 8:65–95

    Google Scholar 

  • Fogel R, Trappe JM (1985) Destuntzia, a new genus in the hymenogastraceae (Basidiomycotina). Mycologia 77:732–742

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fontana A (1961) Primo contributo allo studio delle micorrize dei pioppi in piemonte. Allionia 7:87–129

    Google Scholar 

  • Fontana A, Centrella E (1967) Ectomicorrize prodotte da funghi ipogei. Allionia 13:149–176

    Google Scholar 

  • Fontana A, Fasolo-Bonfante P (1971) Sintesi micorrizica di Tuber brumale con Pinus nigra. Allionia 17:15–18

    Google Scholar 

  • Fontana A, Giovanetti G (1980) Osservazioni su Stephensia bombycina in coltura. Allionia 24:91–98

    Google Scholar 

  • Fortas Z, Chevalier G (1992) Effet les conditions de culture sur la mycorhization de l'Helianthemum guttatum par trois espéces de terfez des genres Terfezia et Tirmania d'Algerie. Can J Bot 70:2453–2460

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frank B (1885) Ueber die auf Wurzelsymbiose beruhende Ernährung gewiser Bäume durch unterirdishe Pilze. Ber Deut Bot Ges 3:128–145

    Google Scholar 

  • Frank B (1887) Ueber neue Mycorhiza-Formen. Ber Deut Bot Ges 5:395–409

    Google Scholar 

  • Frank B (1888) Ueber die physiologische Bedeutung der Mycorhiza. Ber Deut Bot Ges 6:248–269

    Google Scholar 

  • Frank B (1892) Lehrbuch der Botanik nach dem gegemwärtigen Stand der Wissenschaft vol. 1 W. Engelmann, Leipzig 669 p

    Google Scholar 

  • Frank JL, Barry S, Southworth D (2006) Mammal mycophagy and dispersal of mycorrhizal inoculum in Oregon white oak woodlands. Northwest Sci 80:264–273

    Google Scholar 

  • Fries N (1942) Einspormyzelien Einiger Basidiomyceten als Mykorrhizabildner von Kiefer und Fichte. Sv Bot Tidskr 36:151–156

    Google Scholar 

  • Fujimura KE, Smith JE, Horton TR, Weber NS, Spatafora JW (2005) Pezizalean mycorrhizas and sporocarps in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) after prescribed fires in eastern Oregon, USA. Mycorrhiza 15:79–86

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ganley R, Newcombe G (2007) Fungal endophytes in seeds and needles of Pinus monticola. Mycol Res 110:318–327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gardes M, Bruns TD (1996) Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Pinus muricata forest: above-and belowground views. Can J Bot 74:1572–1583

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gardes M, White TJ, Fortin JA, Bruns TD, Taylor JW (1991) Identification of indigenous and introduced symbiotic fungi in ectomycorrhizae by amplification of nuclear and ribosomal DNA. Can J Bot 69:180–190

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Garnica S, Weiß M, Walther G, Oberwinkler F (2007) Reconstructing the evolution og agarics from nuclear gene sequences and basidiospore ultrastructure. Mycol Res 111:1019–1029

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garrido N (1988) Agaricales s.l. und ihre Mykorrhizen in den Nothofagus-wäldern Mittelchiles. Bibl Mycol 120:1–529

    Google Scholar 

  • Gebauer G, Dietrich P (1993) Nitrogen isotope ratios in different compartments of a mixed stand of spruce, larch and beech trees and of understorey vegetation including fungi. Isotopenpraxis Environ Health Stud 29:35–44

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gebauer G, Taylor AFS (1999) 15N natural abundance in fruit bodies of different functional groups of fungi in relation to substrate utilisation. New Phytol 142:93–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gehring CA, Theimer TC, Whitham TG, Keim P (1998) Ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure of pinyon pines growing in two environmental extremes. Ecology 79:1562–1572

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Geiser DM, Gueidan C, Miadlikowska J, Lutzoni F, Kauff F, Hofstetter V, Fraker E, Schoch C, Tibell L, Untereiner WA, Aptroot A (2006) Eurotiomycetes: Eurotiomycetidae and Chaetothyriomycetidae. Mycologia 98:1053–1064

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Giovanetti G, Fontana A (1980) Simbiosi micorrizica di Tuber macrosporum con alcune Fagales. Allionia 23:13–17

    Google Scholar 

  • Giovanetti G, Fontana A (1982) Mycorrhizal synthesis between Cistaceae and Tuberaceae. New Phytol 92:533–537

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glen M, Tommerup IC, Bougher NL, O’Brien PA (2002) Are Sebacinaceae common and widespread ectomycorrhizal associates of Eucalyptus species in Australian forests? Mycorrhiza 12:243–247

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Godbout C, Fortin JA (1983) Morphological features of synthesized ectomycorrhizae of Alnus crispa and A. rugosa. New Phytol 94:249–262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Godbout C, Fortin JA (1985) Synthesized ectomycorrhizae of aspen: fungal genus level of structural characterization. Can J Bot 63:252–262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goncalves CR (1940) Observaciones sobre Pseudococcus comstocki atacando Citrus na Baixada Fluminense. Rodriguesia 4:179–198

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman DM, Durall DM, Trofymow JA, Berch SM (eds) (1996–2000) A manual of concise descriptions of ectomycorrhizae including microscopic and molecular characterization. Mycologue, Victoria

  • Griffith GW, Easton GL, Jones AW (2002) Ecology and diversity of waxcap (Hygrocybe spp.) fungi. Bot J Scotl 54:7–22

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Griffiths RP, Castellano MA, Caldwell BA (1991) Ectomycorrhizal mats formed by Gautieria monticola and Hysterangium setchellii and their association with Douglas-fir seedlings, a case study. Plant Soil 134:255–259

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grogan P, Baar J, Bruns TD (2000) Belowground ectomycorrhizal community structure in a recently burned bishop pine forest. J Ecol 88:1051–1062

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gronbach E (1988) Charakterisierung und Identifizierung von Ektomykorrhizen in einem Fichtenbestand mit Untersuchungen zur Merkmalsvariabilität in sauer beregneten Flächen. Bibl Mycol 125:1–217

    Google Scholar 

  • Grubisha LC, Bergemann SE, Bruns TD (2007) Host islands within the California Northern Channel Islands create fine-scale genetic structure in two sympatric species of the symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus Rhizopogon. Mol Ecol 16:1811–1822

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gruhn CM, Gruhn AV, Miller OK (1992) Boletinellus merulioides alters root morphology of Pinus densiflora without mycorrhizal formation. Mycologia 84:528–533

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gunasekara RGA, Wijekoon R (2005) Mushroom story. Fungi of Sri Lanka. University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya

    Google Scholar 

  • Gutierrez A, Morte A, Honrubia M (2003) Morphological characterization of the mycorrhiza formed by Helianthemum almeriense Pau with Terfezia claveryi Chatin and Picoa lefebvrei (Pat.) Maire. Mycorrhiza 13:299–307

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hacskaylo E (1953) Pure culture syntheses of pine mycorrhizae in Terra-Lite. Mycologia 45:971–975

    Google Scholar 

  • Hacskaylo E (1965) Thelephora terrestris and mycorrhizae of Virginia pine. For Sci 11:401–404

    Google Scholar 

  • Hacskaylo E, Bruchet G (1972) Hebelomas as mycorrhizal fungi. Bull Torrey Bot Club 99:17–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hacskaylo E, Palmer JG (1955) Hymenomycetous species forming mycorrhizae with Pinus virginiana. Mycologia 47:145–147

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hagerman SM, Jones MD, Bradfield GE, Sakakibara SM (1999) Ectomycorrhizal colonization of Picea englemannii x Picea glauca seedlings planted across cut blocks of different sizes. Can J For Res 29:1856–1870

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hagerman SM, Sakakibara SM, Durall DM (2001) The potential for woody unerstory plants to provide refuge for ectomycorrhizal inoculum at an interior Douglas-fir forest after clear-cut logging. Can J For Res 31:711–721

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hallen HE, Bougher NL, Lebel T (2004) Phylogenetic placement of Ammarendia and Torrendia: sequestrate Amanita—or a mixed bag? Abstracts of the MSA Annual Meeting, 2004 University of North Carolina Ashenville, NC, p 56

  • Halling RE, Baroni TJ, Binder M (2007) A new genus of Boletaceae from Eastern North America. Mycologia 99:310–316

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hambleton S, Sigler L (2005) Meliniomyces, a new anamorph genus for root-associated fungi with phylogenetic affinities to Rhizoscyphus ericae (≡ Hymenoscyphus ericae), Leotiomycetes. Stud Mycol 53:1–27

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hammarlund VC (1923) Boletus elegans Schum. und Larix-Mykorrhiza. Bot Not 3:305–326

    Google Scholar 

  • Hansen L, Knudsen H (1992) Nordic macromycetes: polyporales, boletales, agaricales, russulales, vol 2. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen

    Google Scholar 

  • Hansen L, Knudsen H (1997) Nordic macromycetes: heterobasidioid, aphyllophoroid and gastromycetoid basidiomycetes, vol 3. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen

    Google Scholar 

  • Hansen K, Pfister DH (2006) Systematics of the Pezizomycetes - the operculate discomycetes. Mycologia 98:1031–1041

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hansen K, LoBuglio KF, Pfister DH (2005) Evolutionary relationships of the cup-fungus genus Peziza and Pezizaceae inferred from multiple nuclear genes: RPB2, β-tubulin, and LSU rDNA. Mol Phylogenet Evol 36:1–23

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Härkönen M, Niemelä T, Mwasumbi L (2003) Tanzanian mushrooms: Edible, harmful and other fungi. Norrlinia 10:1–200

    Google Scholar 

  • Hart SC, Gehring CA, Selmants PC, Deckert RJ (2006) Carbon and nitrogen elemental and isotopic patterns in macrofungal sporocarps and trees in semiarid forests of the south-western USA. Funct Ecol 20:42–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hatch AB (1934) A jet-black mycelium forming ectotrophic mycorrhizae. Sven Bot Tidskr 28:369–383

    Google Scholar 

  • Hatch AB, Hatch TC (1933) Some hymenomycetes forming mycorrhizae with Pinus strobus L. J Arnold Arbor 14:324–334

    Google Scholar 

  • Haug I, Oberwinkler F (1987) Some distinctive types of spruce mycorrhizae. Trees 1:172–188

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haug I, Lempe J, Homeier J, Weib M, Setaro S, Oberwinkler F, Kottke I (2004) Graffenrieda emarginata (Melastomataceae) forms mycorrhizas with Glomeromycota and with a member of the Hymenoscyphus ericae aggregate in the organic soil of a neotropical mountain rain forest. Can J Bot 82:340–356

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hawker LE (1954) British hypogeous fungi. Phil Trans R Soc London Ser B 237:429–546

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hawksworth DL (2001) The magnitude of fungal diversity: the 15 million species estimate revisited. Mycol Res 105:1422–1432

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Henkel TW, Terborgh J, Vilgalys R (2002) Ectomycorrhizal fungi and their leguminous hosts in the Pakaraima mountains of Guyana. Mycol Res 106:515–531

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Henkel TW, James TY, Miller SL, Aime MC, Miller OK (2006) The mycorrhizal status of Pseudotulostoma volvata (Elaphomycetaceae, Eurotiales, Ascomycota). Mycorrhiza 16:241–244

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Henn MR, Chapela IH (2001) Ecophysiology of 13C and 15N isotopic fractionation in forest fungi and the roots of the saprotrophic-mycorrhizal divide. Oecologia 128:480–487

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hibbett DS, Matheny PB (2009) The relative ages of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms and their plant hosts estimated using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses. BMC Biol 7:13. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-13

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hibbett DS, Gilbert L-B, Donoghue MJ (2000) Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbioses in basidiomycetes. Nature 407:506–508

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff J et al (2007) A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. Mycol Res 111:509–547

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hobbie EA, Agerer R (2009) Nitrogen isotopes in ectomycorrhizal sporocarps correspond to belowground exploration types. Plant Soil, in press. doi:10.1007/s11104-009-0032-z

  • Hobbie JE, Hobbie EA (2006) 15N in symbiotic fungi and plants estimates nitrogen and carbon flux rates in arctic tundra. Ecology 87:816–822

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hobbie EA, Hobbie JE (2008) Natural abundance of 15N in nitrogen-limited forests and tundra can estimate nitrogen cycling throgh mycorrhizal fungi: a review. Ecosystems 11:815–830

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hobbie EA, Macko SA, Shugart HH (1999) Insights into nitrogen and carbon dynamics of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi from isotopic evidence. Oecologia 118:353–360

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hobbie EA, Weber NS, Trappe JM (2001) Mycorrhizal vs saprotrophic status of fungi: the isotopic evidence. New Phytol 150:601–610

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hofstetter V, Clemencon H, Vilgalys R, Moncalvo J-M (2002) Phylogenetic analyses of the Lyophylleae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) based on nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences. Mycol Res 106:1043–1059

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Høiland K, Holst-Jensen A (2000) Cortinarius phylogeny and possible taxonomic implications of ITS rDNA sequences. Mycologia 92:694–710

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horak E (1971) Contributions to the knowledge of the Agaricales s.l. (fungi) of New Zealand. N Z J Bot 9:463–493

    Google Scholar 

  • Horak E (1983) Mycogeography in the South Pacific region: Agaricales, Boletales. Aust J Bot Suppl Ser 10:1–41

    Google Scholar 

  • Horak E, Moser M (1965) Fungi austroamericani VIII. Über neue Gastroboletaceae aus Patagonien: Singeromyces Moser, Paxillogaster Horak und Gymnopaxillus Horak. Nova Hedwig 10:329–338

    Google Scholar 

  • Horton TR, Bruns TD (1998) Multiple-host fungi are the most frequent and abundant ectomycorrhizal types in a mixed stand of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and bishop pine (Pinus muricata). New Phytol 139:331–339

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horton TR, Bruns TD (2001) The molecular evolution in ectomycorrhizal ecology: peeking into the black box. Mol Ecol 10:1855–1871

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horton TR, Bruns TD, Parker VT (1999) Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Arctostaphylos contribute to Pseudotsuga menziesii establishment. Can J Bot 77:93–102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horton TR, Molina R, Hood K (2005) Douglas-fir ectomycorrhizae in 40-and 400-year-old stands: mycobiont availability to late successional western hemlock. Mycorrhiza 15:393–403

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hosaka K, Bates ST, Beever RE et al (2006) Molecular phylogenetics of the gomphoid-phalloid fungi with an establishment of the new subclass Phallomycetidae and two new orders. Mycologia 98:949–959

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hosaka K, Castellano MA, Spatafora JW (2008) Biogeography of Hysterangiales (Phallomycetidae, Basidiomycota). Mycol Res 112:448–462

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchison LJ (1989) Absence of conidia as a morphological character in ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycologia 81:587–594

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchison LJ (1990) Studies on the systematics of ectomycorrhizal fungi in axenic culture. II. The enzymatic degradation of selected carbon and nitrogen compounds. Can J Bot 68:1522–1530

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchison LJ (1992) Host range, geographical distribution and probable ecological status of Catathelasma imperiale in North America. Mycologia 84:472–475

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ingleby K, Mason PA, Last FT, Fleming LV (1990) Identification of Ectomycorrhizas. HMSO, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Iosifidou P, Raidl S (2006) Clavariadelphus pistillaris + Fagus sylvatica. Descr Ectomyc 9–10:21–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Izzo A, Agbowo J, Bruns TD (2005a) Detection of plot level changes in ectomycorrhizal communities across years in an old-growth mixed-conifer forest. New Phytol 166:619–629

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Izzo A, Meyer M, Trappe JM, North M, Bruns TD (2005b) Hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungal species on roots and in small mammal diet in a mixed-conifer forest. For Sci 51:243–254

    Google Scholar 

  • Izzo A, Nguyen DT, Bruns TD (2006) Spatial structure and richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing bioassay seedlings from resistant propagules in a Sierra Nevada forest: comparisons using two hosts that exhibit different seedling establishment patterns. Mycologia 98:374–383

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jakucs E, Bratek Z, Agerer R (1998) Genea verrucosa Vitt. + Quercus spec. Descr Ectomyc 3:19–23

    Google Scholar 

  • Jeandroz S, Murat C, Wang Y, Bonfante P, Le Tacon F (2008) Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the genus Tuber, the ’true truffles’. J Biogeogr 35:815–829

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jonsson L, Dahlberg A, Nilsson M-C, Karen O, Zackrisson O (1999a) Continuity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in self-regenerating boreal Pinus sylvestris forests studied by comparing mycobiont diversity on seedlings and mature trees. New Phytol 142:151–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jonsson L, Dahlberg A, Nilsson M-C, Zackrisson O, Karen O (1999b) Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in late-successional Swedish boreal forests, and their composition following wildfire. Mol Ecol 8:205–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jonsson L, Dahlberg A, Brandrud T-E (2000) Spatiotemporal distribution of an ectomycorrhizal community in an oligotrophic Swedish Picea abies forest subjected to experimental nitrogen addition: above- and belowground views. For Ecol Manag 132:143–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jumpponen A (2001) Dark septate endophytes - are they mycorrhizal? Mycorrhiza 11:207–211

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kasuya MCM, Igarashi T (1996) In vitro ectomycorrhizal formation in Picea glehnii seedlings. Mycorrhiza 6:451–454

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kauffman CH (1906) Cortinarius as a mycorhiza-producing fungus. Bot Gaz 42:208–214

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kawai M (1997) Artificial ectomycorrhiza formation on roots of air-layered Pinus densiflora saplings by inoculation with Lyophyllum shimeji. Mycologia 89:228–232

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kennedy PG, Izzo AD, Bruns TD (2003) There is high potential for the formation of common mycorrhizal networks between understorey and canopy trees in a mixed evergreen forest. J Ecol 91:1071–1080

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kernaghan G (2001) Ectomycorrhizal fungi at tree line in the Canadian Rockies. II. Identification of ectomycorrhizae by anatomy and PCR. Mycorrhiza 10:217–229

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kernaghan G, Currah RS, Bayer RJ (1997) Russulaceous ectomycorrhizae of Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii. Can J Bot 75:1843–1850

    Google Scholar 

  • Kljushnik PI (1952) O gribah, obrazujustshih mikorizu duba. Lesn Hoz 5:63–65

    Google Scholar 

  • Kohn LM, Summerbell R, Malloch DW (1986) A new inoperculate discomycete associated with roots of Picea. Mycologia 78:934–940

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kohzu A, Yoshioka T, Ando T, Takahashi M, Koba K, Wada E (1999) Natural 13C and 15N abundance of field-collected fungi and their ecological implications. New Phytol 144:323–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kõljalg U (1992) Mycorrhiza formed by basidiospores of Tomentella crinalis on Pinus sylvestris. Mycol Res 96:215–220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kõljalg U, Dahlberg A, Taylor AFS, Larsson E, Hallenberg N, Stenlid J, Larsson K-H, Fransson PM, Karen O, Jonsson L (2000) Diversity and abundance of resupinate thelephoroid fungi as ectomycorrhizal symbionts in Swedish boreal forests. Mol Ecol 9:1985–1996

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kõljalg U, Tammi H, Timonen S, Agerer R, Sen R (2002) ITS rDNA nucleotide sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of Tomentellopsis species from boreal and temperate forests, and the identification of pink-type ectomycorrhizas. Mycol Progr 1:81–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Korkama T, Pakkanen A, Pennanen T (2006) Ectomycorrhizal community structure varies among Norway spruce (Picea abies) clones. New Phytol 171:815–824

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kovács GM, Jakucs E, Bagi I (2007) Identification of host plants and description of sclerotia of the truffle Mattirolomyces terfezioides. Mycol Progr 6:19–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kovács GM, Trappe JM, Alsheikh AM, Bóka K, Elliott TF (2008) Imaia, a new truffle genus to accommodate Terfezia gigantea. Mycologia 100:930–939

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kraigher H, Agerer R, Javornik B (1995) Ectomycorrhizae of Lactarius lignyotus on Norway spruce, characterized by anatomical and molecular tools. Mycorrhiza 5:175–180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kretzer AM, Bruns TD (1999) Use of atp6 in fungal phylogenetics: an example from the Boletales. Mol Phylogenet Evol 13:483–492

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kropp BR, Hutchison LJ (1996) Gigasperma americanum, a new hypogeous member of the Basidiomycota associated with Cercocarpus ledifolius in Utah. Mycologia 88:662–665

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kropp BR, Trappe JM (1982) Ectomycorrhizal fungi of Tsuga heterophylla. Mycologia 74:479–488

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Læssøe T, Hansen K (2007) Truffle trouble: what happened to the Tuberales. Mycol Res 111:1075–1099

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Læssøe T, Petersen JH (2008) Svampe livet på ækvator. Svampe 58:1–52 www.mycokey.com

    Google Scholar 

  • Laiho O (1965) Further studies on the ectendotrophic mycorrhiza. Ann For Fenn 79(3):1–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Laiho O (1970) Paxillus involutus as a mycorrhizal symbiont of forest trees. Acta For Fenn 106:1–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Larsson K-H (2007) Re-thinking the classification of corticioid fungi. Mycol Res 111:1040–1063

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Larsson E, Larsson K-H (2003) Phylogenetic relationships of russuloid basidiomycetes with emphasis on aphyllophoralean taxa. Mycologia 95:1037–1065

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Larsson K-H, Parmasto E, Fischer M, Langer E, Nakasone KK, Redhead SA (2006) Hymenochaetales: a molecular phylogeny of the hymenochaetoid clade. Mycologia 98:926–936

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lebel T, Catcheside PS (2009) The truffle genus Cribbea (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales) in Australia. Aust Syst Bot 22:39–55

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lebel T, Tonkin JE (2007) Australasian species of Macowanites are sequestrate species of Russula (Russulaceae, Basidiomycota). Aust Syst Bot 20:355–381

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee SS, Watling R, Turnbull E (2003) Diversity of putative ectomycorrhizal fungi in Pasoh forest reserve. In: Okuda T, Manokaran N, Matsumoto Y, Niyama K, Thomas SC, Ashton PS (eds) Pasoh—ecology of a lowland rain forest in Southeast Asia. Springer, Tokyo, pp 149–159

    Google Scholar 

  • LePage BA (2003) The evolution, biogeography and palaeoecology of the Pinaceae based on fossil and extant representatives. Acta Hortic 615:29–52

    Google Scholar 

  • LePage BA, Currah RS, Stockey RA, Rothwell GW (1997) Fossil ectomycorrhizae from the middle Eocene. Am J Bot 84:410–412

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lepp H (2009) Australian fungi website. http://www.anbg.gov.au/fungi/

  • Lian C, Nara K, Nakaya H, Zhou Z, Wu B, Miyashita N, Hogetsu T (2001) Development of microsatellite markers in polyploid Salix reinii. Mol Ecol Notes 1:160–161

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lihnell D (1942) Cenococcum graniforme als mykorrhizabildner von waldbäumen. Symb Bot Ups 5:1–19

    Google Scholar 

  • Lilleskov EA, Fahey TJ, Horton TR, Lovett GM (2002a) Belowground ectomycorrhizal community change over a nitrogen deposition gradient in Alaska. Ecology 83:104–115

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lilleskov EA, Hobbie EA, Fahey TJ (2002b) Ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa differing in response to nitrogen deposition also differ in pure culture organic nitrogen use and natural abundance of nitrogen isotopes. New Phytol 154:219–231

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • LoBuglio KF, Berbee ML, Taylor JW (1996) Phylogenetic origins of the asexual mycorrhizal symbiont Cenococcum geophilum Fr. and other mycorrhizal fungi among the ascomycetes. Mol Phylogenet Evol 6:287–294

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lodge DJ (2003) Basidiomycetes of the Greater Antilles, especially the Luquillo LTER site. http://luq.lternet.edu/data/lterdb86/metadata/lterdb86.htm

  • Loree MAJ, Lumme I, Niemi M, Tormala T (1989) Inoculation of willows (Salix spp.) with ectomycorrhizal fungi on mined boreal peatland. Plant Soil 116:229–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lu X, Malajczuk N, Dell B (1998) Mycorrhiza formtion and growth of Eucalyptus globulus seedlings inoculated with spores of various ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 8:81–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lupatini M, Bonnassis PAP, Steffen RB, Oliveira VL, Antoniolli ZI (2008) Mycorrhizal morphotyping and molecular characterization of Chondrogaster angustisporus Giachini, Castellano, Trappe & Oliveira, an ectomycorrhizal fungus from Eucalyptus. Mycorrhiza 18:437–442

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Luppi AM, Gautero C (1967) Ricerche sulle micorrize di Quercus robur. Q. petraea e Q. pubescens in Piemonte. Allionia 13:129–148

    Google Scholar 

  • Lusk DE (1987) Pseudaleuria quinaultiana, a new genus and species of operculate ascomycete from the Olympic peninsula. Mycotaxon 30:417–431

    Google Scholar 

  • Lynch MDJ, Thorn RG (2006) Diversity of basidiomycetes in Michigan agricultural soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:7050–7056

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Magyar L, Beenken L, Jakucs E (1999) Inocybe heimii + Fumana procumbens. Descr Ectomyc 4:61–65

    Google Scholar 

  • Maia LC, Yano AM, Kimbrough JW (1996) Species of Ascomycota forming ectomycorrhiza. Mycotaxon 57:371–390

    Google Scholar 

  • Malajczuk N, Hartney VJ (1986) Procedure for inoculation of micropropagated plantlets of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with ectomycorrhizal fungi, and comparison with seedling inoculation using inoculum contained in a peat/vermiculite carrier. Aust For Res 16:199–206

    Google Scholar 

  • Malajczuk N, Molina R, Trappe JM (1982) Ectomycorrhiza formation in Eucalyptus. I. Pure culture synthesis, host specificity and mycorrhizal compatibility with Pinus radiata. New Phytol 91:467–482

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Malajczuk N, Dell B, Bougher NL (1987) Ectomycorrhiza formation in Eucalyptus. III. Superficial ectomycorrhizas initiated by Hysterangium and Cortinarius species. New Phytol 105:421–428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Malloch D (1987) The evolution of mycorrhizae. Can J Plant Pathol 9:398–402

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin F, Diez J, Dell B, Delaruelle C (2002) Phylogeography of the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus species as inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. New Phytol 153:345–359

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marx DH, Hatch AB, Mendicino JF (1977) High soil fertility decreases sucrose content and susceptibility of loblolly pine roots to ectomycorrhizal infection by Pisolithus tinctorius. Can J Bot 55:1569–1574

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Massicotte HB, Peterson RL, Melville LH (1988) Ontogeny of Alnus rubra -Alpova diplophloeus ectomycorrhizae. I. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Can J Bot 67:191–200

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Massicotte HB, Melville LH, Peterson RL, Molina R (2000) Comparative anatomy of ectomycorrhizas sythesized on Douglas fir by Rhizopogon spp. and the hypogeous relative Truncocolumella citrina. New Phytol 147:389–400

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Masui K (1927) A study of the ectotrophic mycorrhizas of woody plants. Mem Coll Sci Kyoto Imp Univ Ser B 3:149–279

    Google Scholar 

  • Matheny PB, Bougher NL (2006) The new genus Auritella from Africa and Australia (Inocybaceae, Agaricales): molecular systematics, taxonomy and historical biogeography. Mycol Progr 5:2–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Matheny PB, Curtis JM, Hofstetter V et al (2006) Major clades of Agaricales: a multilocus phylogenetic overview. Mycologia 98:984–997

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Matheny PB, Wang Z, Binder M et al (2007) Contributions of rpb2 and tef1 to the phylogeny of mushrooms and allies (Basidiomycota, Fungi). Mol Phylogenet Evol 43:430–451

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Matheny PB, Aime MC, Bougher NL, Buyck B, Desjardin D, Horak E, Kropp BR, Lodge DJ, Soytong K, Trappe JM, Hibbett DS (2009) Out of the palaeotropics? Historical biogeography and diversification in the cosmopolitan ectomycorrhizal mushroom family Inocybaceae. J Biogeogr 36:577–592

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Matsuda Y, Hijii N (1999) Characterization and identification of Strobilomyces confusus ectomycorrhizas on Momi fir by RFLP analysis of the PCR-amplified ITS region of the rDNA. J For Res 4:145–150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mattirolo O (1887) Sul parassitismo dei Tartufi e sulla quistione delle Mycorhizae. Malpighia 1:359

    Google Scholar 

  • May TW, Milne J, Wood AE, Shingles S, Jones RH, Neish P (2009) Interactive catalogue of Australian Fungi, Version 2.0. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra & Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/fungi/cat

  • Mayor JR, Schuur EAG, Henkel TW (2009) Elucidating the nutritional dynamics of fungi using stable isotopes. Ecol Lett 12:171–183

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • McCune B, Mefford MJ (2006) PC-ORD: multivariate analysis of ecological data, Version 504. MjM, Gleneden Beach

    Google Scholar 

  • McDougall WB (1914) On the mycorhizas of forest tress. Am J Bot 1:51–78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McGee PA (1996) The Australian zygomycetous mycorrhizal fungi: the genus Densospora gen. nov. Aust Syst Bot 9:329–336

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McKenzie EHC, Buchanan PK, Johnston PR (2000) Checklist of fungi on Nothofagus species in New Zealand. N Z J Bot 38:635–720

    Google Scholar 

  • Melin E (1921) Über die mykorrhizenpilze von Pinus silvestris L. und Picea abies (L.) karst. Sven Bot Tidskr 15:192–203

    Google Scholar 

  • Melin E (1922) Untersuchungen über die Larix-Mykorrhiza. I. Synthese der mykorrhiza in reinkultur. Sven Bot Tidskr 16:161–196

    Google Scholar 

  • Melin E (1923a) Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Birken-und Espenmykorrhizen und Ihre Pilzsymbionten. Sven Bot Tidskr 17:479–519

    Google Scholar 

  • Melin E (1923b) Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Konstitution und Ökologie der Mykorrhizen von Pinus silvestris L. und Picea Abies (L.) Karst. Mykol Untersuch Ber 2:73–331

    Google Scholar 

  • Melin E (1924) Zur Kenntnis der Mykorrhizapilze von Pinus montana Mill. Bot Not 4:69–92

    Google Scholar 

  • Melin E (1925) Untersuchungen über die Larix-Mykorrhiza II. Zur weiteren kenntnis der pilzsymbionten. Sven Bot Tidskr 19:98–103

    Google Scholar 

  • Melin E (1936) Methoden der Experimentellen Untersuchung mykotropher Pflanzen. Handb Biol Arbeitsmeth 11:4

    Google Scholar 

  • Menkis A, Allmér J, Vasiliauskas R, Lygis V, Stenlid J, Finlay RD (2004) Ecology and molecular characterization of dark septate fungi from roots, living stems, coarse and fine woody debris. Mycol Res 108:965–973

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Menkis A, Vasiliauskas R, Taylor AFS, Stenlid J, Finlay R (2006) Fungal communities in mycorrhizal roots of conifer seedlings in forest nurseries under different cultivation systems, assessed by morphotyping, direct sequencing and mycelial isolation. Mycorrhiza 16:33–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mikola P (1948) On the physiology and ecology of Cenococcum graniforme. Forest Research Institute, Helsinki

    Google Scholar 

  • Mikola P (1965) Studies on the ectendotrophic mycorrhiza of pine. Acta For Fenn 79(2):1–56

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller OK (1973) A new gastroid genus related to Gomphidius. Mycologia 65:226–228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller OK (2003) The Gomphidiaceae revisited: a worldwide perspective. Mycologia 95:176–183

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller SL, Koo CD, Molina R (1991) Characterization of red alder ectomycorrhizae: a preface to monitoring belowground ecological responses. Can J Bot 69:516–531

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller SL, Torres P, McClean TM (1994) Persistence of basidiospores and sclerotia of ectomycorrhizal fungi and Morchella in soil. Mycologia 86:89–95

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller OK, Henkel TW, James TY, Miller SL (2001) Pseudotulostoma, a remarkable new volvate genus in the Elaphomycetaceae from Guyana. Mycol Res 105:1268–1272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller SL, Larsson E, Larsson K-H, Verbeken A, Nuytinck J (2006) Perspectives in the new Russulales. Mycologia 98:960–970

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mleczko P (2004) Rhodocollybia butyracea (forma butyracea) + Pinus sylvestris. Descr Ectomyc 7–8:101–108

    Google Scholar 

  • Modess O (1941) Zur Kenntnis der Mykorrhizabildner von Kiefer und Fichte. Symb Bot Ups 51:3–147

    Google Scholar 

  • Molina R, Trappe JM (1982) Patterns of ectomycorrhizal host specificity and potential among Pacific Northwest conifers and fungi. For Sci 28:423–458

    Google Scholar 

  • Molina R, Massicotte H, Trappe JM (1992) Specificity phenomena in mycorrhizal symbiosis: community-ecological consequences and practical implications. In: Allen M (ed) Mycorrhizal functioning. An integrative plant-fungal process. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 357–423

    Google Scholar 

  • Moncalvo J-M, Vilgalys R, Redhead SA et al (2002) One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics. Mol Phylogenet Evol 23:357–400

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moncalvo J-M, Nilsson RH, Koster B et al (2006) The cantherelloid clade: dealing with incongruent gene trees and phylogenetic reconstruction methods. Mycologia 98:937–948

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Montechi A, Sarasini M (2000) Funghi ipogei d'Europa. Associazione Micologica Bresadola, Trento

    Google Scholar 

  • Moreau P-A, Peintner U, Gardes M (2006) Phylogeny of the ectomycorrhizal mushroom genus Alnicola (Basidiomycota, Cortinariaceae) based on rDNA sequences with special emphasis on host specificity and morphological characters. Mol Phylogenet Evol 38:794–807

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moreno-Arroyo B, Gómez J, Pulido E (2000) Ecología de los hongos hipogeos de Andalucía (España). Bol Soc Micol Madr 25:215–241

    Google Scholar 

  • Morris MH, Smith ME, Rizzo DM, Rejmanek M, Bledsoe CS (2008) Contrasting ectomycorrhizal fungal communites on the roots of co-occuring oaks (Quercus spp.) in a California woodland. New Phytol 178:167–176

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morris MH, Perez-Perez MA, Smith ME, Bledsoe CS (2009) Influence of host species on ectomycorrhizal communities associated with two co-occurring oaks (Quercus spp.) in a tropical cloud forest. Fems Microbiol Ecol 69:274–287

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morte MA, Cano A, Honrubia M, Torres P (1994) In vitro mycorrhization of micropropagated Helianthemum almariense plantlets with Terfezia claveryi (desert truffle). Agric Sci Finl 3:309–314

    Google Scholar 

  • Moser AM, Frank JL, D`Allura JA, Southworth D (2009) Ectomycorrhizal communities of Quercus garryana are similar on serpentine and nonserpentine soils. Plant Soil 315:185–194

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mueller GM, Pine EM (1994) DNA data provide evidence on the evolutionary relatioships between mushrooms and false truffles. McIlvainea 11:61–74

    Google Scholar 

  • Mühlmann O, Peintner U (2008) Mycobionts of Salix herbacea on a glacier forefront in the Austrian Alps. Mycorrhiza 18:171–180

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Münzenberger B, Bubner B, Wöllecke J, Sieber TN, Bauer R, Fladung M, Hüttle RF (2009) The ectomycorrhizal morphotype Pinirhiza sclerotia is formed by Acephala macrosclerotiorum sp. nov., a close relative of Phialocephala fortinii. Mycorrhiza, in press. doi:10.1007/s00572-009-0239-0

  • Murat C, Vizzini A, Bonfante P, Mello A (2005) Morphological and molecular typing of the belowground fungal community in natural Tuber magnatum truffle-ground. FEMS Microbiol Lett 245:307–313

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nara K (2006) Pioneer dwarf willow may facilitate tree succession by providing late colonizers with compatible ectomycorrhizal fungi in a primary successional volcanic desert. New Phytol 171:187–198

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nara K, Hogetsu T (2004) Ectomycorrhizal fungi on established shrubs facilitate subsequent seedling establishment of successional plant species. Ecology 85:1700–1707

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Natarajan K, Senthilarasu G, Kumaresan V, Riviere T (2005) Diversity in ectomycorrhizal fungi of a dipterocarp forest in Western Ghats. Curr Sci 88:1890–1893

    Google Scholar 

  • Nilsson RH, Larsson K-H, Larsson E, Kõljalg U (2006) Fruiting body-guided molecular identification of root tip mantle mycelia provides strong indications of ectomycorrhizal associations in two species of Sistotrema. Mycol Res 110:1426–1432

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Noack F (1889) Ueber mykorhizenbildende Pilze. Bot Zeit 24:391–404

    Google Scholar 

  • Noetzli K, Graf F, Böll A, Sieber TN, Holdenrieder O (2008) Influence of decay fungi, construction characteristics and environmental conditions on the quality of wooden check-dams. J For Prod 58:72–79

    Google Scholar 

  • Norkrans B (1950) Studies in growth and cellulolytic enzymes in Tricholoma with special reference to mycorrhiza formation. Symb Bot Ups 11:1–126

    Google Scholar 

  • O'Donnell K, Cigelnik E, Weber NS, Trappe JM (1997) Phylogenetic relationships among ascomycetous truffles and false morels inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Mycologia 89:48–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ohga S, Wood DA (2000) Efficacy of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes on Japanese larch seedlings assessed by ergosterol assay. Mycologia 92:394–398

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olsson PA, Mürzenberger B, Mahmood S, Erland S (2000) Molecular and anatomical evidence for a three-way association between Pinus sylvestris and ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus bovinus and Gomphidius roseus. Mycol Res 104:1372–1378

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Orlovich DA, Cairney JWG (2004) Ectomycorrhizal fungi in New Zealand: current perspectives and future directions. N Z J Bot 42:721–738

    Google Scholar 

  • Pachlewski R (1967) Investigations of pure culture of mycorrhizal fungi of pine (Pinus silvestris L.). Forest Research Institute, Warsaw

    Google Scholar 

  • Pachlewski R, Chrusciak E (1980) Aktywnosc enzymatyczna mikoryzowych. II. Acta Mycol 16:97–103

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Palenzona M, Chevalier G, Fontana A (1972) Sintesi micorrizica tra i miceli in coltura di Tuber brumale, T. melanosporum, T. rufum e semenzali di conifere a latifoglie. Allionia 18:41–52

    Google Scholar 

  • Palfner G (2001) Taxonomische Studien an Ektomykorrhizen aus den Nothofagus-Wäldern Mittelsüdchiles. Bibl Mycol 190:1–243

    Google Scholar 

  • Palfner G, Agerer R (1998a) Balsamia alba Harkness + Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. Descr Ectomyc 3:1–6

    Google Scholar 

  • Palfner G, Agerer R (1998b) Leucangium carthusianum + Pseudotsuga menziesii. Descr Ectomyc 3:37–42

    Google Scholar 

  • Palmer JM, Lindner D, Volk TJ (2008) Ectomycorrhizal characterization of an american chestnut (Castanea dentata)-dominated community in Western Wisconsin. Mycorrhiza 19:27–36

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pantidou ME (1962) Cultural studies of Boletaceae. Carpophores of Phlebopus lignicola in culture. Can J Bot 40:1313–1319

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pegler DN (1983) Agaric flora of the Lesser Antilles. Kew Bull. Addit Ser 9:1–668

    Google Scholar 

  • Pegler DN (1986) Agaric flora of Sri Lanka. HMSO, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Pegler DN, Boddy L, Ing B, Kirk PM (1993) Fungi of Europe: investigation, recording and conservation. Royal Botanical Gardens, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Peintner U, Bougher NL, Castellano M-A, Moncalvo J-M, Moser MM, Trappe JM, Vilgalys R (2001) Multiple origins of sequestrate fungi related to Cortinarius (Cortinariaceae). Am J Bot 88:2168–2179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peintner U, Horak E, Moser MM, Vilgalys R (2002) Phylogeny of Rozites, Cuphocybe and Rapacea inferred from ITS and LSU rDNA sequences. Mycologia 94:620–629

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pera J, Alvarez IF (1995) Ectomycorrhizal fungi of Pinus pinaster. Mycorrhiza 5:193–200

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perry BA, Hansen K, Pfister DH (2007) A phylogenetic overview of the family Pyronemataceae. Mycol Res 111:549–571

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peter M, Büchler U, Ayer S, Egli F (2001) Ectomycorrhizas and molecular phylogeny of the hypogeous russuloid fungus Arcangeliella borziana. Mycol Res 105:1231–1238

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peterson RL, Wagg C, Pautier M (2008) Associations between microfungal endophytes and roots: do structural features indicate function? Botany 86:445–456

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Peyronel B (1920) Alcuni casi di rapporti micorizici tra boletinee ed essenze arboree. Le Staz Esp Agr Ital 53:24–31

    Google Scholar 

  • Peyronel B (1922) Nuovi casi di rapprti micorizici tra basidomiceti e fanerogame arboree. Bull Soc Bot Ital 1:7–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Peyronel B (1929) Le micorrize delle essenxe forestali. L'Alpe 1929:309–315

    Google Scholar 

  • Pilat A (1931) Monographie der europäischen Polyporaceen mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Beziehungen zur Landwirtschaft. Beih Bot Centralbl 48:404–437

    Google Scholar 

  • Pilat A (1965) Hrib drevozijny-Pulveroboletus lignicola (Kallenbach) comb. nov. na sumave? Ceska Mykoln 19:180–181

    Google Scholar 

  • Pirotta R, Albini A (1900) Osservazioni sulla biologica del tartufo giallo (Terfezia leonis Tul.). Rend R Acc Dei Lincei 91

  • Pritsch K, Boyle H, Munch JC, Buscot F (1997) Characterization and identification of black alder ectomycorrhizas by PCR/RFLP analyses of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer. New Phytol 137:357–369

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Püttsepp Ü, Rosling A, Taylor AFS (2004) Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with Salix viminalis L. and S. dasyclados Wimm. clones in a short-rotation forestry plantation. For Ecol Manag 196:413–424

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raidl S (1999) Chamonixia cespitosa Rolland + Picea abies (L.) Karst. Descr Ectomyc 4:1–6

    Google Scholar 

  • Raidl S, Hahn C (2006) Porphyrellus porphyrosporus (Fr.) Gilb. + Picea abies (L.) Karst. Descr Ectomyc 9–10:61–68

    Google Scholar 

  • Reddell P, Gordon V, Hopkins MS (1999) Ectomycorrhizas in Eucalyptus tetrodonta and E. miniata forest communities in tropical Northern Australia and their role in the rehabilitation of these forests following mining. Aust J Bot 47:881–907

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Redhead S (1989) A biogeographical overview of the Canadian mushroom flora. Can J Bot 67:3003–3062

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Redhead S, Malloch DW (1985) The genus Phaeocollybia (Agaricales) in eastern Canada and its biological status. Can J Bot 64:1249–1254

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reeß M (1880) Über den Parasitismus von Elaphomyces granulatus. Bot Zeit 38:729–735

    Google Scholar 

  • Richter DL, Bruhn JN (1989) Pinus resinosa ectomycorrhizae: Seven host-fungus combinations synthesized in pure culture. Symbiosis 7:211–228

    Google Scholar 

  • Riffle JW (1973) Pure culture synthesis of ectomycorrhizae on Pinus ponderosa with species of Amanita, Suillus, and Lactarius. For Sci 19:242–250

    Google Scholar 

  • Rinaldi AC, Comadini O, Kuyper TW (2008) Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: separating the wheat from the chaff. Fungal Divers 33:1–45

    Google Scholar 

  • Riviere T, Diedhiou AG, Diabate M, Senthilarasu G, Natarajan K, Verbeken A, Buyck B, Dreyfus B, Bena G, Ba AM (2007) Genetic diversity of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes from African and Indian tropical forests. Mycorrhiza 17:415–428

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rosling A, Landeweert R, Lindahl BD, Larsson K-H, Kuyper TW, Taylor AFS, Finlay RD (2003) Vertical distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa in a podzol soil profile. New Phytol 159:775–783

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ryberg M, Nilsson RH, Kristiansson E, Töpel M, Jacobsson S, Larsson E (2008) Mining metadata from unidentified ITS sequences in GenBank: A case study in Inocybe (Basidiomycota). BMC Evol Biol 8:50

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ryberg M, Larsson E, Molau U (2009) Ectomycorrhizal diversity in Dryas octopetala and Salix reticulata in an Alpine cliff ecosystem. Arct Alp Res, in press

  • Sagara N (1995) Association of ectomycorrhizal fungi with decomposed animal wastes in forest habitats:a cleaning symbiosis? Can J Bot 73:S1423–S1433

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanmartin I, Ronquist F (2004) Southern Hemisphere biogeography inferred by event-based models: plant versus animal patterns. Syst Biol 53:216–243

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanmartin I, Enghoff H, Ronquist F (2001) Patterns of animal dispersal, vicariance and diversification in the Holarctic. Biol J Linn Soc 73:345–390

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sappa F (1940) Ricerche biologiche Tuber magnatum Pico. Nuovo G Bot Ital 47:155–198

    Google Scholar 

  • Sato H, Yumoto T, Murakami N (2007) Cryptic species and host specificity in the ectomycorrhizal genus Strobilomyces (Strobilomycetaceae). Am J Bot 94:1630–1641

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schramm JR (1966) Plant colonization studies on black wastes from anthracite mining in Pennsylvania. Trans Am Philos Soc 56:1–194

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scotland RW, Wortley AH (2003) How many species of seed plants are there? Taxon 52:101–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Selosse M-A, Bauer R, Moyersoen B (2002) Basal hymenomycetes belonging to the Sebacinaceae are ectomycorrhizal on temperate deciduous trees. New Phytol 155:183–195

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Selosse M-A, Setaro S, Glatard F, Richard F, Urcelay C, Weiß M (2007) Sebacinales are common mycorrhizal associates of Ericaceae. New Phytol 174:864–878

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shemakhanova NM (1956) Hebeloma crustuliniforme—mikorizo-obrazovatel duba. Mikrobiologija 25:57–60

    Google Scholar 

  • Shemakhanova NM (1962) Mikotrofija drevesnych porod. Izdavlenije Akademija Nauk USSR, Moscow

    Google Scholar 

  • Shi L, Guttenberger M, Kottke I, Hampp R (2002) The effect of drought on mycorrhizas of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.): changes in community structure, and the content of carbohydrates and nitrogen storage bodies of the fungi. Mycorrhiza 12:303–311

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sims K, Watling R, de la Cruz R, Jeffries P (1997) Ectomycorrhizal fungi of the Philippines:a preliminary survey and notes on the geographic biodiversity of the Sclerodermatales. Biodivers Conserv 6:45–58

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singer R (1944) Genera of fungi. Mycologia 36:358–368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singer R (1962) Monographs of South American Basidiomycetes, especially those of the east slope of the Andes and Brazil. V. Gasteromycetes with agaricoid affinities (secotiaceous Hymenogastrineae and related forms). Bol Soc Argent Bot 10:52–67

    Google Scholar 

  • Singer R (1986) The Agaricales in modern taxonomy, 4th edn. Sven Koeltz, Koenigstein

    Google Scholar 

  • Singer R, Digilio APL (1951) Prodromo de la flora agaricina Argentina. Lilloa 25:1–462

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith AH (1966) A note on Psiloboletinus. Mycologia 58:332–336

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith ME, Healy RA (2009) Otidea subterranea sp. nov.: Otidea goes below ground. Mycol Res 113(8):858–866

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith SE, Read DJ (2008) Mycorrhizal symbiosis, 3rd edn. Academic, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith JE, McKay D, Niwa CG, Thies WG, Brenner G, Spatafora JW (2004) Short-term effects of seasonal prescribed burning on the ectomycorrhizal fungal community and fine root biomass in ponderosa pine stands in the Blue Mountains of Oregon. Can J For Res 34:2477–2491

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith ME, Trappe JM, Rizzo DM, Miller SL (2006a) Gymnomyces xerophilus sp. nov. (sequestrate Russulaceae), an ectomycorrhizal associate of Quercus in California. Mycol Res 110:575–582

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith ME, Trappe JM, Rizzo DM (2006b) Genea, Genabea and Gilkeya gen. nov.: ascomata and ectomycorrhiza formation in a Quercus woodland. Mycologia 98:699–716

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith ME, Douhan GW, Rizzo DM (2007) Ectomycorrhizal community structure in a xeric Quercus woodland based on rDNA sequence analysis of sporocarps and pooled roots. New Phytol 174:847–863

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith ME, Douhan GW, Fremier AK, Rizzo DM (2009) Are true multihost fungi the exception or the rule? Dominant ectomycorrhizal fungi on Pinus sabiniana differ from those on co-occurring Quercus species. New Phytol 182:295–299

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stendell ER, Horton TR, Bruns TD (1999) Early effects of prescribed fire on the structure of the ectomycorrhizal fungus community in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine forest. Mycol Res 103:1353–1359

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Swofford DL (2002) PAUP* phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods), version 4. Sinauer, Sunderland

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor AFS, Alexander IJ (1989) Ectomycorrhizal synthesis with an isolate of Russula aeruginea. Mycol Res 92:103–107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor AFS, Alexander IJ (1991) Ectomycorrhizal synthesis with Tylospora fibrillosa, a member of the Corticiaceae. Mycol Res 95:381–384

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor DL, Bruns TD (1999) Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Pinus muricata forest: minimal overlap between the mature forest and resistant propagule communities. Mol Ecol 8:1837–1850

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor AFS, Fransson PMA, Högberg P, Högberg MN, Plamboeck AH (2003) Species level patterns in C and N abundance of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungal sporocarps. New Phytol 159:757–774

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tedersoo L, Kõljalg U, Hallenberg N, Larsson K-H (2003) Fine scale distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi and roots across substrate layers including coarse woody debris in a mixed forest. New Phytol 159:153–165

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tedersoo L, Hansen K, Perry BA, Kjøller R (2006a) Molecular and morphological diversity of pezizalean ectomycorrhiza. New Phytol 170:581–596

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Larsson E, Kõljalg U (2006b) Diversity and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a wooded meadow. Mycol Res 110:734–748

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tedersoo L, Pellet P, Kõljalg U, Selosse M-A (2007a) Parallel evolutionary paths to mycoheterotrophy in understorey Ericaceae and Orchidaceae: ecological evidence for mixotrophy in Pyroleae. Oecologia 151:206–217

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Beaver K, Kõljalg U (2007b) Ectomycorrhizal fungi of the Seychelles: diversity patterns and host shifts from the native Vateriopsis seychellarum (Dipterocarpaceae) and Intsia bijuga (Caesalpiniaceae) to the introduced Eucalyptus robusta (Myrtaceae), but not Pinus caribea (Pinaceae). New Phytol 175:321–333

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Beaver K, Saar I (2007c) Ectomycorrhizas of Coltricia and Coltriciella (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) on Caesalpiniaceae, Dipterocarpaceae and Myrtaceae in Seychelles. Mycol Progr 6:101–107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tedersoo L, Jairus T, Horton BM, Abarenkov K, Suvi T, Saar I, Kõljalg U (2008a) Strong host preference of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Tasmanian wet sclerophyll forest as revealed by DNA barcoding and taxon-specific primers. New Phytol 180:479–490

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Jairus T, Kõljalg U (2008b) Forest microsite effects on community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi on seedlings of Picea abies and Betula pendula. Environ Microbiol 10:1189–1201

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tedersoo L, Gates G, Dunk C, Lebel T, May TW, Dunk C, Lebel T, Kõljalg U, Jairus T (2009a) Establishment of ectomycorrhizal fungal community on isolated Nothofagus cunninghamii seedlings regenerating on dead wood in Australian wet temperate forests: does fruit-body type matter? Mycorrhiza 19:403–416

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tedersoo L, Pärtel K, Jairus T, Gates G, Põldmaa K, Tamm H (2009b) Ascomycetes associated with ectomycorrhizas:molecular diversity and ecology with particular reference to the Helotiales. Environ Microbiol, in press. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02020.x

  • Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Jairus T, Ostonen I, Põlme S (2009c) Revisiting ectomycorrhizal fungi of Alnus: differential host specificity, diversity and determinants of the fungal community. New Phytol 182:727–735

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Theodorou C, Reddell P (1991) In vitro synthesis of ectomycorrhizas on Casuarinaceae with a range of ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 118:279–288

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thiers HD (1979) New and interesting hypogeous and secotioid fungi from California. Sydowia 8:381–390

    Google Scholar 

  • Thiers HD (1989) Gastroboletus revisited. Mem N Y Bot Gard 49:355–359

    Google Scholar 

  • Thoen D, Ba AM (1989) Ectomycorrhizas and putative ectomycorrhizal fungi of Afzelia africana Sm. and Uapaca guineensis Müll. Arg. in Southern Senegal. New Phytol 113:549–559

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thoen D, Ducousso M (1989) Mycorrhizal habit and sclerogenesis of Phlebopus sudanicus (Gyrodontaceae) in Senegal. Agric Ecosyst Environ 28:519–523

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas GW, Jackson RM (1979) Sheathing mycorrhizas of nursery grown Picea sitchensis. Trans Br Mycol Soc 73:117–125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomson BD, Hardy GES, Malajczuk N, Grove TS (1996) The survival and development of inoculant ectomycorrhizal fungi on roots of outplanted Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Plant Soil 178:247–253

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Toljander JF, Eberhardt U, Toljander YK, Paul LR, Taylor AFS (2006) Species composition of an ectomycorrhizal fungal community along a local nutritional gradient. New Phytol 170:873–884

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trappe JM (1962) Fungus associates of ectotrophic mycorrhizae. Bot Rev 28:538–606

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trappe JM (1967) Pure culture synthesis of Douglas fir mycorrhizae with species of Hebeloma, Suillus and Astraeus. For Sci 13:121–130

    Google Scholar 

  • Trappe JM (1971a) A synopsis of the Carbomycetaceae and Terfeziaceae (Tuberales). Trans Br Mycol Soc 57:85–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trappe JM (1971b) Mycorrhiza-forming Ascomycetes. In: Hacskaylo E (ed) Mycorrhizae. USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C., pp 19–37

    Google Scholar 

  • Trappe JM, Bougher NL (2002) Australasian sequestrate (truffle-like) fungi. XI. Gummivena potorooi gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycota, Mesophelliaceae), with a key to the ‘gummy’ genera and species in the Mesophelliaceae. Australas Mycol 21:9–11

    Google Scholar 

  • Trappe JM, Castellano MA (1986) Newly described hypogeous fungi and the mycorrhizae they form in vitro. 1 Martellia medlockii sp. nov. (Russulaceae). Mycologia 78:918–921

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trappe JM, Castellano MA (2000) New sequestrate Ascomycota and Basidiomycota covered by the northwest forest plan. Mycotaxon 75:153–179

    Google Scholar 

  • Trappe JM, Claridge AW (2005) Hypogeous fungi: evolution of reproductive and dispersal strategies through interactions with anmals and mycorrhizal plants. In: Dighton J, White JF, Oudemans P (eds) The fungal community. Its organization and role in the ecosystem. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 599–611

    Google Scholar 

  • Trappe JM, Claridge AW, Arora D, Smit WA (2008a) Desert truffles of the African Kalahari:ecology, ethnomycology, and taxonomy. Econ Bot 62:521–529

    Google Scholar 

  • Trappe JM, Claridge AW, Claridge DL, Liddle L (2008b) Desert truffles of the Australian outback: ecology, ethnomycology and taxonomy. Econ Bot 62:497–506

    Google Scholar 

  • Trappe JM, Kovács GM, Claridge AW (2009a) Comparative taxonomy of desert truffles of the Australian Outback and African Kalahari. Mycol Progr, in press

  • Trappe J, Molina R, Luoma D, Cazares E, Pilz D, Smith JE and 4 others (2009b) Diversity, ecology, and conservation of Truffle fungi in forests of the Pacific Northwest. USDA general technical report PNW-GTR-772

  • Trocha LK, Rudawska M, Leski T, Dabert M (2006) Genetic diversity of naturally established ectomycorrhizal fungi on Norway spruce seedlings under nursery conditions. Microb Ecol 52:418–425

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trowbridge J, Jumpponen A (2004) Fungal colonization of shrub willow roots at the forefront of a receding glacier. Mycorrhiza 14:283–293

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trudell SA, Rygiewicz PT, Edmonds RL (2004) Patterns of nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios in macrofungi, plants and soils in two old-growth conifer forests. New Phytol 164:317–335

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tulasne L-R, Tulasne C (1845) Memoire pour servir a l'histoire des chamignons hypogés suivi de laur monographie, et accompagne de planches. C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci Paris 21:1432–1436

    Google Scholar 

  • Uecker FA (1967) Stephensia shanori. I. Cytology of the ascus and other observations. Mycologia 59:819–832

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uhl M, Agerer R (1987) Studies on ectomycorrhizae XI. Mycorrhizae formed by Dermocybe crocea on Pinus sylvestris and Dermocybe palustris on Pinus mugo. Nova Hedwig 45:509–527

    Google Scholar 

  • Urban AU, Weiss M, Bauer R (2003) Ectomycorrhizas involving sebacinoid mycobionts. Mycol Res 107:3–14

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ursic M, Peterson RL (1997) Morphological and anatomical characterization of ectomycorrhizas and ectendomycorrhizas on Pinus strobus seedlings in a southern Ontario nursery. Can J Bot 75:2057–2072

    Google Scholar 

  • Valentine LL, Fiedler TL, Hart AN, Petersen CA, Berminghausen HK, Southworth D (2004) Diversity of ectomycorrhizas associated with Quercus garryana in southern Oregon. Can J Bot 82:123–135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van der Heijden EW, Kuyper TW (2003) Ecological strategies of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Salix repens: root manipulation versus root replacement. Oikos 103:668–680

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vanderklift MA, Ponsard S (2003) Sources of variation in consumer-diet d15N enrichment: a meta-analysis. Oecologia 136:169–182

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vasiliauskas R, Menkis A, Finlay RD, Stenlid J (2007) Wood-decay fungi in living roots of conifer seedlings. New Phytol 174:441–446

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Veldre V (2009) Molecular phylogeny of Ceratobasidium and Thanatephorus, and its correlation with anastomosis grouping and ecology. Thesis. University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

  • Verbeken A, Walleyn R (1999) Is Pterygellus mycorrhizal with a euphorbia? Mycologist 13:37

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vozzo JA, Hacskaylo E (1961) Mycorrhizal Fungi on Pinus virginiana. Mycologia 53:538–539

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vrålstad T, Holst-Jensen A, Schumacher T (1998) The post-fire discomycete Geopyxis carbonaria (Ascomycota) is a biotrophic root associate with Norway spruce (Picea abies) in nature. Mol Ecol 7:609–616

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vrålstad T, Fossheim T, Schumacher T (2000) Piceirhiza bicolorata-the expression of the Hymenoscyphus aggregate? New Phytol 145:549–563

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vrålstad T, Myhre E, Schumacher T (2002a) Molecular diversity and phylogenetic affinities of symbiotic root-associated ascomycetes of the Helotiales in burnt and metal polluted habitats. New Phytol 155:131–148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vrålstad T, Schumacher T, Taylor AFS (2002b) Mycorrhizal synthesis between fungal strains of the Hymenoscyphus ericae aggregate and potential ectomycorrhizal and ericoid hosts. New Phytol 153:143–152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Walker JF, Parrent JL (2004) Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the mycorrhizal status of Tremellodendron (Sebacinaceae). In: Cripps CL (ed) Fungi in forest ecosystems: systematics, diversity and ecology. New York Botanical Garden Press, New York, pp 267–274

    Google Scholar 

  • Walker JF, Miller OK, Horton JL (2005) Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Mol Ecol 14:829–838

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang Y, Hall IR (2004) Edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms: challenges and achievements. Can J Bot 82:1063–1073

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang B, Qiu Y-L (2006) Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of mycorrhizas in land plants. Mycorrhiza 16:299–363

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang CJK, Wilcox HE (1985) New species of ectendomycorrhizal and pseudomycorrhizal fungi: Phialophora finlandia, Chloridium paucisporum and Phialocephala fortinii. Mycologia 77:951–958

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warcup JH (1985) Ectomycorrhiza formation by Glomus tubiforme. New Phytol 99:267–272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warcup JH (1988) Mycorrhizal associations of isolates of Sebacina vermifera. New Phytol 110:227–231

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warcup JH (1990a) Occurrence of ectomycorrhizal and saprophytic discomycetes after a wild fire in an eucalypt forest. Mycol Res 94:1065–1069

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warcup JH (1990b) Taxonomy, culture and mycorrhizal associations of some zygosporic Endogonaceae. Mycol Res 94:173–178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warcup JH (1990c) The mycorrhizal associations of Australian Inuleae (Asteraceae). Muelleria 7:179–187

    Google Scholar 

  • Warcup JH (1991a) The fungi forming mycorrhizas on eucalypt seedlings in regeneration coupes in Tasmania. Mycol Res 95:329–332

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warcup JH (1991b) The Rhizoctonia endophytes of Rhizanthella (Orchidaceae). Mycol Res 95:656–659

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warcup JH, McGee PA (1983) The mycorrhizal associations of some Australian Asteraceae. New Phytol 95:667–672

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warcup JH, Talbot PHB (1989) Muciturbo: a new genus of hypogeous ectomycorrhizal Ascomycetes. Mycol Res 92:95–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watling R (2006) The sclerodermatoid fungi. Mycoscience 47:18–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weidemann HN (1998) Pavisning av Helvella ektomykorrhiza hos Dryas og Salix ved hjelp av taxon-selektive nrDNA baserte Helvella-primere. Cand. Sci. Thesis. University of Oslo, Oslo

  • Weiß M, Selosse M-A, Rexer K-H, Urban A, Oberwinkler F (2004) Sebacinales: a hitherto overlooked cosm of heterobasidiomycetes with a broad mycorrhizal potential. Mycol Res 108:1003–1010

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wells K (1975) Studies of some Tremellaceae. V. A new genus, Efibulobasidium. Mycologia 67:147–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White MM, James TY, O'Donnell K, Cafaro MJ, Tanabe Y, Sugiyama J (2006) Phylogeny of the Zygomycota based on nuclear ribosomal sequence data. Mycologia 98:872–874

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wiedmer E, Senn-Irlet B, Hahn C, Agerer R (2004) Melanogaster broomeianus Berk. Ex Tul. + Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. Descr Ectomyc 7(8):49–57

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilcox HE, Wang CJK (1987) Mycorrhizal and pathological associations of dematiaceous fungi in roots of 7-month-old tree seedlings. Can J For Res 17:884–899

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilcox HE, Ganmore-Neumann R, Wang CJK (1974) Characteristics of two fungi producing ectendomycorrhizae in Pinus resinosa. Can J Bot 52:2279–2282

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson AW, Hobbie EA, Hibbett DS (2007) The ectomycorrhizal status of Calostoma cinnabarinum determined using isotopic, molecular, and morphological methods. Can J Bot 85:385–393

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wipf D (1997) Polymorphismes protéique et génomique au sein des Morchellaceae – Mise au point d’un outil moléculaire adapté à l’étude de l’écologie du genre Morchella en milieu forestier. PhD thesis, Laboratoire de Biologie Forestière, Nancy

  • Wu C-G, Lin S-J (1997) Endogonales in Taiwan: a new genus with unizygosporic sporocarps and a hyphal mantle. Mycotaxon 64:179–188

    Google Scholar 

  • Yagame T, Yamato M, Suzuki A, Iwase K (2008) Ceratobasidiaceae mycorrhizal fungi isolated from nonphotosynthetic orchid Chamaegastrodia sikokiana. Mycorrhiza 18:97–101

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yamada A, Katsuya K (1995) Mycorrhizal association of isolates from sporocarps and ectomycorrhizas with Pinus densifolia seedlings. Mycoscience 36:315–323

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yamada A, Ogura T, Ohmasa M (2001) Cultivation of mushrooms of edible ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Pinus densiflora by in vitro mycorrhizal synthesis. II. Morphology of mycorrhizas in open-pot soil. Mycorrhiza 11:67–81

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang ZL, Trappe JM, Binder M, Sanmee R, Lumyong P, Lumyong S (2006) The sequestrate genus Rhodactina (Basidiomycota, Boletales) in northern Thailand. Mycotaxon 96:133–140

    Google Scholar 

  • Yao Y-J, Pegler DN, Young TWK (1995) Youngiomyces, a new genus in Endogonales (Zygomycotina). Kew Bull 50:349–357

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Young HE (1937) Rhizopogon luteolus, a mycorrhizal fungus of Pinus. Forestry 11:30–31

    Google Scholar 

  • Yu TE, Egger KN, Peterson RL (2001) Ectendomycorrhizal associations – characteristics and functions. Mycorrhiza 11:167–177

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zak B (1969) Characterization and classification of mycorrhizae of Douglas-fir. I. Pseudotusga menziesii + Poria terrestris (blue- and orange-staining strains). Can J Bot 47:1833–1840

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zak B (1976) Pure culture sythesis of pacific madrone ectendomycorrhizae. Mycologia 68:362–369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zeller B, Bréchet C, Maurice J-C, Le Tacon F (2007) 13C and 15N isotopic fractionation in trees, soils and fungi in a natural forest stand and Norway spruce plantation. Ann For Sci 64:419–429

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zeller B, Bréchet C, Maurice J-C, Le Tacon F (2008) Saprotrophic versus symbiotic strategy during truffle ascocarp development under holm oak. A response based on 13C and 15N natural abundance. Ann For Sci 65:607–617

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zerova MY (1950) Scleroderma verrucosum - mikoriznyi grib drevesnych porod v suhije stepi. Ukr Bot Zh 10:67–71

    Google Scholar 

  • Zerova MY (1956) Inocybe serotina Peck. - mycorrhizal symbiont of willow (Salix acutifolis Willd.). Ukr Bot Zh 13:54–62

    Google Scholar 

  • Zerova MY, Rozhenko HL (1966) Entoloma erophilum and E. sericeum - mycorrhizal symbionts of oak. Ukr Bot Zh 23:62–66

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang B-C, Minter DW (1989) Gymnohydnotrya: a new hypogeous ascomycete genus from Australia. Mycol Res 92:192–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank D.S. Hibbett, J.M. Trappe, E.A. Hobbie, and G.M. Kovács for constructive comments on an earlier version of the manuscript; U. Kõljalg and K.-H. Larsson for general taxonomic advice; M. Vaasma for technical assistance; and M. Binder, K. Hansen, U. Kõljalg, K.-H. Larsson, D.H. Pfister, A.F.S. Taylor, and J.M. Trappe for invaluable information on Boletales, Pezizales, Atheliales, Pezizales, stable isotopes, and sequestrate fungi, respectively. Funding was provided from grants ETF6606, 7434, JD0092J, and FIBIR (L.T.). Financial support for M. Smith was provided by the Harvard University Herbaria.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Leho Tedersoo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Tedersoo, L., May, T.W. & Smith, M.E. Ectomycorrhizal lifestyle in fungi: global diversity, distribution, and evolution of phylogenetic lineages. Mycorrhiza 20, 217–263 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-009-0274-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-009-0274-x

Keywords

  • Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis
  • Biogeography of fungi
  • Evolutionary ecology
  • Fruit-body types
  • Sequestrate fungi
  • Poorly known taxa