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Mycorrhiza

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 111–119 | Cite as

Weed control and cover crop management affect mycorrhizal colonization of grapevine roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore populations in a California vineyard

  • Kendra Baumgartner
  • Richard F. Smith
  • Larry Bettiga
Original Paper

Abstract

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi naturally colonize grapevines in California vineyards. Weed control and cover cropping may affect AM fungi directly, through destruction of extraradical hyphae by soil disruption, or indirectly, through effects on populations of mycorrhizal weeds and cover crops. We examined the effects of weed control (cultivation, post-emergence herbicides, pre-emergence herbicides) and cover crops (Secale cereale cv. Merced rye, × Triticosecale cv.Trios 102) on AM fungi in a Central Coast vineyard. Seasonal changes in grapevine mycorrhizal colonization differed among weed control treatments, but did not correspond with seasonal changes in total weed frequency. Differences in grapevine colonization among weed control treatments may be due to differences in mycorrhizal status and/or AM fungal species composition among dominant weed species. Cover crops had no effect on grapevine mycorrhizal colonization, despite higher spring spore populations in cover cropped middles compared to bare middles. Cover crops were mycorrhizal and shared four AM fungal species (Glomus aggregatum, G. etunicatum, G. mosseae, G. scintillans) in common with grapevines. Lack of contact between grapevine roots and cover crop roots may have prevented grapevines from accessing higher spore populations in the middles.

Keywords

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Cover crops Herbicides Vitis vinifera Weeds 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the USDA, ARS and the Western Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program. Statistical analysis support was provided by Bruce E. Mackey, Statistician, USDA, ARS, PWA. We thank Jason Smith and Daryl Salm of Valley Vineyard Management for their cooperation with our work. Special thanks to Xiaomei Cheng, Jeremy Warren, Sharon Schnabel, and Lisa Chiu for field and laboratory assistance.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kendra Baumgartner
    • 1
  • Richard F. Smith
    • 2
  • Larry Bettiga
    • 2
  1. 1.USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.University of California Cooperative ExtensionMonterey CountyUSA

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