Skip to main content

Doing well or doing good?

Extrinsic and intrinsic CSR in Switzerland

Abstract

Arguably, within Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) the intrinsic motive is more significant than the extrinsic because the former induces a stronger involvement. Others showed that a behaviour attributed to extrinsic motives is mostly perceived as dishonest and misleading. This highlights how important the underlying motivation is for the perception, and thus, design and effectiveness of CSR frameworks. This study discusses these divergent motives with two focus groups: together with seven owner-managers of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME) and seven managers of large companies. The results show that CSR implementation in Swiss SMEs is related more strongly to moral commitment than to profit-maximisation. Accordingly, small business CSR emerges from the nexus of mission and value-set and the sociological tradition of the stewardship concept. This contrasts the extrinsically motivated approach of the large companies under research. In sum, this study showed that CSR is meaningful and justifiable even if it is not profitable in the first place.

Zusammenfassung

Verschiedentlich wurde aufgezeigt, dass punkto gesellschaftlicher Verantwortung von Unternehmen (Corporate Social Responsibility – CSR) intrinsischer Motivation eine nachhaltigere Wirkung attestiert werden kann als dies für die entsprechenden extrinsischen Anreize zu postulieren ist. Begründet wird dies vor allem dadurch, dass letztere, die von einer Profitmaximierung durch CSR ausgehen, als unlauter und irreführend eingeschätzt werden. Dies verdeutlicht, welche Bedeutung den Motiven im Zusammenhang mit gesellschaftlicher Verantwortung beigemessen werden muss – nicht nur im Hinblick auf die Gestaltung der organisationalen Gegebenheiten von CSR ganz allgemein mehr noch bezüglich der Effektivität der entsprechenden Aktivitäten. Die vorliegende Studie diskutiert diese Motive in vier Fokusgruppen mit je sieben Grosskonzernen und sieben SchweizerKlein- und mittelgrossen Unternehmungen (KMU). Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass grosse Firmen vornehmlich extrinsisch motiviert sind und CSR als Managementfunktion ansehen. In KMU herrschen hingegen intrinsische Motive vor, die auf ein soziales Werte-Set des Unternehmers und einen Zusammenschluss von Tugenden und Mission im Unternehmen zurückzuführen sind. Dies beweist, dass CSR auch ohne direkten Bezug zu Gewinnmaximierung oder dem Profitmotiv bedeutsam, gerechtfertigt und insbesondere vertretbar ist.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Angus-Leppan T, Metcalf L, Benn S (2010) Leadership styles and CSR practice: an examination of sensemaking, institutional drivers and CSR leadership. J Bus Ethics 93(2):189–213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Arend RJ (2013) Ethics-focused dynamic capabilities: a small business perspective. Small Bus Econ 41(1):1–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Arjaliès D-L, Mundy J (2013) The use of management control systems to manage CSR: a levers of control perspective. Manag Account Res 24(4):284–300

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Armstrong JS, Green KC (2013) Effects of corporate social responsibility and irresponsibility policies. J Bus Res 66(10):1922–1927

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Asif M, Searcy C, Zutshi A, Fisscher OAM (2013) An integrated management system approach to corporate social responsibility. J Cleaner Prod 56:7–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Asongu JJ (2007) The History of Corporate Social Responsibility. J Bus Public Policy. 1(2). http://issuu.com/drvayanos/docs/842. Accessed 07 July 2013

  7. Baldarelli M-G, Gigli S (2011) Exploring the drivers of corporate reputation integrated with a corporate responsibility perspective: some reflections in theory and praxis. J Manag Gov 18(2):589–613

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Balog AM, Baker LT, Walker AG (2014) Religiosity and spirituality in entrepreneurship: a review and research agenda. J Manag Spiritual Relig 11(2):159–186

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Banerjee SB (2008) Corporate social responsibility: the good, the bad and the ugly. Crit Sociol 34(1):51–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Baumann-Pauly D, Wickert C, Spence LJ, Scherer AG (2013) Organizing corporate social responsibility in small and large firms: size matters. J Bus Ethics 115(4):693–705

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Berger V, Winistörfer H, Weissert S, Heim E, Schüz M (2012) Swiss corporate sustainability survey 2012: Nachhaltigkeit in Schweizer Unternehmen. ZHAW, Winterthur

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bichta C (2003) Corporate social responsibility. A role in government policy and regulation? The University of Bath, Bath. http://www.bath.ac.uk/management/cri/pubpdf/Research_Reports/16_Bichta.pdf. Accessed 17 Feb 2015

  13. Blackburn RA, Hart M, Wainwright T (2013) Small business performance: business, strategy and owner-manager characteristics. J Small Bus Enterp Develop 20(1):8–27

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Blindheim B-T (2015) Institutional models of corporate social responsibility: a proposed refinement of the explicit-implicit framework. Bus Soc 54(1):52–88

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Boiral O (2007) Corporate greening through ISO 14001: a rational myth? Organ Sci 18(1):127–146

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Brammer S, Hoejmose S, Marchant K (2012) Environmental management in SMEs in the UK: practices, pressure and perceived benefits. Bus Strateg Environt 21(7):423–434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Campbell JL (2006) Institutional analysis and the paradox of corporate social responsibility. Am Behav Sci 49(7):925–938

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Campbell JL (2007) Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility. Acad Manag Rev 32(3):946–967

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Campopiano G, De Massis A, Cassia L (2012) Corporate social responsibility: A survey among SMEs in Bergamo. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 62:325–341

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Cañón-de-Francia J, Garcés-Ayerbe C (2009) ISO 14001 environmental certification: a sign valued by the market? Environ Resour Econ 44(2):245–262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Carroll AB (1991) The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: toward the moral management of organisational stakeholders. Bus Horiz 34(4):39–48

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Cassimon D, Engelen P-J, Van Liedekerke L (2015) When do firms invest in corporate social responsibility? A real option framework. J Bus Ethics. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10551-015-2539-y. Accessed 03 May 2015

  23. Castelló I, Lozano JM (2011) Searching for new forms of legitimacy through corporate responsibility rhetoric. J Bus Ethics 100(1):11–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Credit Suisse (2014) Erfolgsfaktoren für Schweizer KMUs—Perspektiven und Herausforderungen im Export. Swiss Issue Branches. https://www.credit-suisse.com/media/production/pb/docs/unternehmen/kmugrossunternehmen/cs-kmu-studie-de.pdf. Accessed 06 April 2015

  25. Creswell JW (2007) Qualitative inquiry & research design: choosing among five approaches. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks

    Google Scholar 

  26. Day N, Hudson D (2010) US small company leaders’ religious motivation and other-directed organizational values. Int J Entrep Behav Res 17(4):361–379

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. De la Cruz Déniz Déniz M, Katiuska Cabrera Suárez M (2005) Corporate social responsibility and family business in Spain. J Bus Ethics 56(1):27–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Deci EL, Koester R, Ryan RM (1999) A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychol Bull 125(6):627–668

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Del Baldo M (2010a) Corporate social responsibility and corporate governance in Italian SMEs: the experience of some “spirited businesses”. J Manag Gov 16(1):1–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Del Baldo M (2010b) Corporate social responsibility and corporate governance governance in Italian SMEs: towards a “territorial” model based on small “champions” of CSR? Int J Sust Soc 2(3):215–247

    Google Scholar 

  31. Del Baldo M (2013) Entrepreneurial virtues in CSR-oriented SMEs. Reflection in theory and practice. World J Soc Sci 3(6):126–142

    Google Scholar 

  32. Dobers P, Springett D (2010) Corporate social responsibility: discourse, narratives and communication. Corp Soc Responsib Environ Manag 17(2):63–69

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Etzioni A (1988) The moral dimension: towards a new economics. The Free Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  34. Federal Administration (2008) Information about Switzerland. http://web.archive.org/web/20100123153543/ http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/reps/ocea/vaus/infoch.html. Accessed 03 May 2015

  35. Fifka MS (2012) The irony of stakeholder management in Germany: the difficulty of implementing an essential concept for CSR. UWF 21(1–2):113–118

    Google Scholar 

  36. Filbeck G, Gorman RF (2004) The relationship between environmental and financial performance of public utilities. Environ Resource Econ 29(2):137–157

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Fitjar RD (2011) Little big firms? Corporate social responsibility in small businesses that do not compete with big ones. Bus Ethics: Eur Rev 20(1):30–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Flick U (2007) Qualitative Sozialforschung. Eine Einführung. Rowohlts Enzyklopädie, Hamburg

    Google Scholar 

  39. Freeman RE, Liedtka J (1991) Corporate social responsibility: a critical approach - corporate social responsibility no longer a useful concept. Business horizons. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-11015279/corporate-socialresponsibility-critical.html. Accessed 6 June 2012

  40. Frey BS (1998) Not just for the money: an economic theory of personal motivation, Edward Elgar, Cheltham

    Google Scholar 

  41. Frey BS, Jegen R (2001) Motivation crowding theory. J Econ Surveys 15(5):589–611

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Frey BS, Oberholzer-Gee F (1997) The cost of price incentives: an empirical analysis of motivation crowding out. Am Econ Rev 87:746–755

    Google Scholar 

  43. Friedman M (1962) Capitalism and freedom. University of Chicago Press, Chicago

    Google Scholar 

  44. Friedman M (1970) The Social Responsibility of Business Is To Increase Profits, New York Times Magazine, Vol. 13, September 1970, pp. 32–33

  45. FSO Federal Statistical Office (2003) Definitionen. http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/06/11/def.html. Accessed 01 April 2015

  46. FSO Federal Statistical Office (2012) Panorama: Industrie und Dienstleistungen. http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/06/01/pan.Document.118137.pdf. Accessed 03 April 2015

  47. FSO Federal Statistical Office (2013) Statistik der Unternehmensstruktur 2011. http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/06/01/new/nip_detail.html?gnpID=2013-716. Accessed 06 March 2015

  48. Gebauer J, Mewes H (2015) Qualität und Suffizienz in stabilitätsorientierten KMU, Unternehmensansätze für die Postwachstumsgesellschaft. UWF 23(1–2):33–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Gentile GC, Lorenz C (2012) Schweizer Unternehmen als gute Bürger - Eine Tradition im Wandel der Zeit. In: Wehner T, Gentile GC (eds) Corporate Volunteering. uniscope: Publikationen der SGO Stiftung. Gabler Verlag Springer Fachmedien, Wiesbaden, pp 79–89

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  50. Gephard RP (2004) From the editors: qualitative research and the academy of management journal. Acad Manage J 47(4):454–462

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Gowri A (2007) On corporate virtue. J Bus Ethics 70(4):391–400

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Graafland JJ, Eijffinger SCW (2004) Corporate social responsibility of Dutch companies: benchmarking, transparency and robustness. De Economist 152(3):403–426

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Graafland JJ, Mazereeuw-Van der Duijn Schouten C (2012) Motives for corporate social responsibility. De Economist 160(4):377–396

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Graafland, JJ, van de Ven B (2006) Strategic and moral motivation for corporate social responsibility. JCC 22(2006):111–123

    Google Scholar 

  55. Hansla A, Gamble A, Juliusson A, Gärling T (2008) The relationship between awareness of consequences, environmental concern, and value orientation. J Environ Psychol 28(1):1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Höllerer MA (2013) From taken-for-granted to explicit commitment: the rise of CSR in a corporatist country. J Manag Stud 50(4):573–606

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Jamali D, Sdiani Y (2013) Does religiosity determine affinities to CSR? J Manag Spiritual Relig 10(4):309–323

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Jamali D, Zanhour M, Kehishian T (2009) Peculiar strengths and relational attributes of SMEs in the context of CSR. J Bus Ethics 87(3):355–377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Jenkins H (2004) A critique of conventional CSR theory: an SME perspective. J Gen Manag 29(4):37–57

    Google Scholar 

  60. Jenkins H (2006) Small business champions for corporate social responsibility. J Bus Ethics 67(3):241–256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Jones TM, Wicks AC (1999) Convergent stakeholder theory. Acad Manag Rev 24(2):206–221

    Google Scholar 

  62. Kilbourne W, Pickett G (2008) How materialism affects environmental beliefs, concerns, and environmentally responsible behaviour. J Bus Res 61(9):885–893

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Kilbourne W, Grünhagen M, Foley J (2005) A cross-cultural examination of the relationship between materialism and individual values. J Econ Psychol 26(5):624–641

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Kitzinger J (1994) The methodology of focus groups: the importance of interaction between research participants. Sociol Health Ill 16(1):103–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Kleinrichert D (2008) Ethics, power and communities: corporate social responsibility revisited. J Bus Ethics 78(3):475–586

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Kotler P, Lee N (2005) Corporate social responsibility: doing the most good for your company and your cause. Wiley, Hoboken

    Google Scholar 

  67. Leitschuh H (2008) CSR ist gut, Nachhaltig Wirtschaften ist besser. UWF 16(1):45–48

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Lewins A, Silver C (2007) Using software in qualitative research. Sage, London

    Book  Google Scholar 

  69. Linder W (2005) Schweizerische Demokratie, 2., vollständig überarbeitete und aktualisierte Auflage. Haupt Verlag, Bern

    Google Scholar 

  70. Looser S (2015) Formalisierung und ihre “grauen” Kosten bei Schweizer KMU. Der Schweizer Treuhänder 1–2:8

    Google Scholar 

  71. Looser S, Wehrmeyer W (2014) CSR mapping: Swiss stakeholder salience, concerns, and ethics. Soc Sci Res Netw. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2541199. Accessed 27 Jan 2015

  72. Looser S, Wehrmeyer W (2015a) Stakeholder Mapping of CSR in Switzerland. Soc Responsib J 11(4) (in press)

  73. Looser S, Wehrmeyer W (2015b) An emerging template of CSR in Switzerland. Corp Ownersh Control J 12(3):541–560

    Google Scholar 

  74. Lorenzo-Molo CF, Siloran Udani ZA (2013) Bringing back the essence of the “S” and “R” to CSR: understanding the limitations of the merchant trade and the white man burden. J Bus Ethics 117(1):123–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Lounsbury M (2008) Institutional rationality and practice variation: new directions in the institutional analysis of practice. Acc Organ Soc 33(4–5):349–361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Lüth A, Welzel C (2007) Vom engagierten Unternehmer zum Verantwortungspartner—CSR im deutschen Mittelstand, UWF 15(3):148–154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Lynch-Wood G, Williamson D, Jenkins W (2009) The over-reliance on self-regulation in CSR policy. Bus Ethics: Eur Rev 18(1):52–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Madlin N (1986) Religion and entrepreneurial psyche. Venture 8:1

    Google Scholar 

  79. Mason C, Simmons J (2013) Embedding corporate social responsibility in corporate governance: a stakeholder system approach. J Bus Ethics 119(1):77–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Matten D, Moon J (2008) ‘Implicit’ and ‘Explicit’ CSR: a conceptual framework for a comparative understanding of corporate social responsibility. Acad Manag Rev 33(2):404–424

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. McWilliams A, Siegel D (2000) Corporate social responsibility and financial performance: correlation or misspecification? Strateg Manag J 21(5):603–609

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Melé D (2009) Business ethics in action. Seeking human excellence in organisations. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire

    Google Scholar 

  83. Midttun A, Gautesen K, Gjølberg M (2006) The political economy of CSR in Western Europe. Corp Gov 6(4):369–385

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Mijatovic IS, Stokic D (2010) The influence of internal and external codes on CSR practice: the case of companies operating in Serbia. J Bus Ethics 94(4):533–552

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Mintzberg H (1983) The case for social responsibility. J Bus Strategy 4(2):3–15

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Mitchell ML, Jolley JM (1992) Research design explained. Hartcourt Brace Jovanich, New York

    Google Scholar 

  87. Morgan DL (1988) Focus group as qualitative research. Sage, Thousand Oaks

    Google Scholar 

  88. Morgan DL (1996) Focus groups. Annu Rev Sociol 22(1):129–152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Nawroth C (2013) CSR and sustainability in times of crisis: are consumers voting with their wallets and are companies putting their money where their mouth is? UWF 21(1–2):75–81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Norman W, MacDonald C (2004) Getting to the bottom-line. Bus Ethics Q 4(2):243–262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Osuji O (2011) Fluidity of regulation-CSR nexus: the multinational corporate corruption example. J Bus Ethics 103(1):31–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Parguel B, Benôit-Moreau F, Larceneux F (2011) How sustainability ratings might deter “Greenwashing”: a closer look at ethical corporate communication. J Bus Ethics 102(1):15–28

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Philipsen G (1987) The prospects for cultural communication. In: Kincaid L. (ed) Communication theory: eastern and western perspectives. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 245–254

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  94. Porter M, Kramer M (2006) Strategy and society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Bus Rev 84(12):78–92

    Google Scholar 

  95. Porter, M, van der Linde C (1995) Green competition: ending the stalemate. Harvard Bus Rev 73(5):120–134

    Google Scholar 

  96. Rasche A, Bakker FGA, Moon J (2013) Complete and partial organising for corporate social responsibility. J Bus Ethics 115(4):651–663

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Revell A, Blackburn R (2007) The business case for sustainability? An examination of small firms in the UK’s construction and restaurant sectors. Bus Strategy Environ 16(6):404–420

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Rössler P (2005) Inhaltsanalyse. UVK Verlagsgesellschaft GmbH, Konstanz

    Google Scholar 

  99. Rousseau JJ (2003) The new encyclopaedia britannica, Vol 26. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 938–942

  100. Ruisi M (2010) “Measure entrepreneurial virtues. Towards a new perspective for the indicators of corporate success”, 23rd Eben Annual Conference Which values for which Organisations? Trento, 9–11 September

  101. Ruisi M, Fasone V, Paternostro S (2009) “Respect and hope: a binomial relationship supporting the creation of a true entrepreneurial model”, 5th Annual Conference of the European SPES Forum “Respect and Economic Democracy”, Catalonia, 17–18 April

  102. Russo A, Tencati A (2009) Formal vs. informal CSR strategies: evidence from Italian micro, small, medium-sized, and large firms. J Bus Ethics 85(S2):339–353

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Salkind NJ (2010) Encyclopaedia of research design. Sage, Thousand Oaks

    Book  Google Scholar 

  104. Scherer AG, Palazzo G (2007) Towards as political conception of corporate social responsibility: business and society seen from a habermasian perspective. Acad Manag Rev 32(4):1096–1120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Scott RW (1995) Institutions and organizations. Sage, Thousand Oaks

    Google Scholar 

  106. SECO State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (2011) “Ambitionen sind gut, Fokussierung ist besser”. http://www.kmu.admin.ch/aktuell/00524/02098/02122/index.html?lang=En-US. Accessed 31 Jan 2015

  107. Simms J (2002) Business: corporate social responsibility—you know it makes sense. Accountancy 130(1311):48–50

    Google Scholar 

  108. Skapinker M (2008) “Virtue’s reward?” Financial Times, 28 April 2008

  109. Spence LJ, Schmidpeter R, Habisch A (2003) Assessing social capital: small and medium sized enterprises in Germany and the U.K. J Bus Ethics. 47:17–29

  110. SRF Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen (2013) Schweizer KMUs—Rückgrat der Wirtschaft. http://www.srf.ch/news/infografik/schweizer-kmu-rueckgrat-der-wirtschaft. Accessed 10 March 2015

  111. Sterr T (2007) Unternehmen mit regionaler Verantwortung. UWF 15(3):125–129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. STERR, Thomas (2012) Nachhaltigkeitsorientierte Weiterentwicklung von Industrie- und Gewerbeparks. In: Gastherausgeberschaft (ed)[guest editorship] uwf (Umweltwirtschaftsforum), 20(2-4):95-96 (Springer Spectrum Publishers, Heidelberg)

  113. Steurer R (2010) The role of governments on corporate social responsibility: characterising public policies on CSR in Europe. Policy Sci 43(1):49–72

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Steurer R, Martinuzzi A, Margula S (2012) Public policies on CSR in Europe: themes, instruments, and regional differences. Corp Soc Responsib Environ Manag 19(4):206–227

    Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Story J, Neves P (2015) When corporate social responsibility (CSR) increases performance: exploring the role of intrinsic and extrinsic CSR attribution. Bus Ethics: Eur Rev 24(2):111–123

    Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Suchman MC (1995) Managing legitimacy: strategic and institutional approaches. Acad Manag Rev 20(3):571–610

    Google Scholar 

  117. Telle K (2006) “It pays to be green”—a premature conclusion? Environ Resource Econ 35(3):195–220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Torugsa NA, O’Donoghue W, Hecker R (2013) Proactive CSR: an empirical analysis of the role of its economic, social and environmental dimensions on the association between capabilities and performance. J Bus Ethics 115(2):383–401

    Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Valentine S, Fleischmann G (2008) Ethics programs, perceived corporate social responsibility and job satisfaction. J Bus Ethics 77(2):159–172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Van den Hoonaard WC (1997) Working with sensitizing concepts: analytical field research. Sage, Thousand Oaks

    Google Scholar 

  121. Van Marrewijk M (2003) Concepts and definitions of CSR and corporate sustainability: between agency and communion. J Bus Ethics 44(2):95–105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  122. Verbi (2012) MAXQDA 11. Eine Einführung. http://www.maxqda.de/download/manuals/MAX11_intro_ger.pdf. Accessed 13 April 2015

  123. Vlachos PA, Panagopoulos NG, Rapp AA (2013) Feeling good by doing good: employee CSR-induced attributions, job satisfaction, and the role of charismatic leadership. J Bus Ethics 118(3):577–588

    Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Vogel DJ (2005) Is there a market for virtue? The business case for corporate social responsibility. Calif Manage Rev 47(4):19–45

    Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Vogel DJ (2009) The private regulation of global corporate conduct. Achievements and limitations. Bus Soc 49(1):68–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  126. Wagner M, Schaltegger S, Wehrmeyer W (2001) The relationship between the environmental and economic performance of firms—what does theory propose and what does empirical evidence tell us? GMI 2001(34):94–111

    Google Scholar 

  127. Weber M (2008) The business case for corporate social responsibility: a company-level measurement approach for CSR. Eur Manag J 26(4):247–261

    Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Weiner B, Peter N (1973) A cognitive-development analysis of achievements and moral judgement. Dev Psychol 9(3):290–309

    Article  Google Scholar 

  129. Williams S, Schaefer A (2013) Small and medium sized enterprises and sustainability: managers’ values and engagement with environmental and climate change issues. Bus Strategy Environ 22(3):173–186

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Zefix (2014) Central Business Names Index. http://zefix.admin.ch/. Accessed 30 Feb 2015; 05 May 2015; 17 May 2015

  131. Zeyen A, Beckmann M, Wolters S (2014) Actors and Institutional Dynamics in the Development of Multi-stakeholder Initiatives. J Bus Ethics. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10551-014-2468-1. Accessed 06 May 2015

  132. Zheng Q, Luo Y, Maksimov V (2014) Achieving legitimacy through corporate social responsibility: the case of emerging economic firms. J World Bus 50(3):389–403

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Stéphanie Looser.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Looser, S., Wehrmeyer, W. Doing well or doing good?. uwf 23, 227–240 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00550-015-0360-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Focus Group Discussion
  • Large Company
  • Small Company
  • Extrinsic Motive