Design of a low cost and high performance wireless sensor network for structural health monitoring

Abstract

Structural health monitoring systems often requires a large number of accelerometers, so the cost of each sensor and the architecture of the acquisition system become determining elements when evaluating the feasibility of this kind of studies. The flexibility of the monitoring system is fundamental, especially in case of existing buildings, where the use of a considerable quantity of cable could compromise the normal exercise, could affect the quality of acquired signal and finally be too expensive. For these reasons, the adoption of wireless sensor networks able to manage several accelerometers nodes is desirable. Wireless sensor networks have several critical aspects to solve: most important are the synchronism and the high determinism in data sampling required in this kind of applications, and the possible loss of data during the wireless transmission. The purpose of this work is to show and discuss the results obtained with a wireless sensors system for structural health monitoring of buildings or infrastructures placed in seismic zones. The first six prototypes of sensors have been assembled and tested, in order to state floor noise, the performances and the synchronization method.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  1. Acar C, Shkel AM (2003) Experimental evaluation and comparative analysis of commercial variable-capacitance MEMS accelerometers. J Micromech Microeng 13:634–645

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Adams P (2009) Using micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers for earthquake monitoring. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society. Member Articles

  3. Albarbar A, Mekid S, Starr A, Pietruszkiewicz R (2008) Suitability of MEMS accelerometers for condition monitoring: an experimental study. Sensors 8:784–799

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. APS 113 (2015) APS dynamics Inc.—APS 113, in http://www.apsdynamics.com/ Jan 2015

  5. Berns H, Wilkes RJ (2000) GPS time synchronization system for K2K. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci 47(2):340–343. doi:10.1109/23.846177

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Colibrys (2012) MS9000.D Single axis analog accelerometer—Datasheet. http://www.colibrys.com/. Accessed 01 Aug 2015

  7. Deraemaeker A, Reynders E, Roeck GD, Kullaa J (2008) Vibration-based structural health monitoring using output-only measurements under changing environment. Mech Syst Signal Process 22(1):34–56. doi:10.1016/j.ymssp.2007.07.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. DS1307 Maxim (2015) Real-time clock data sheet. http://www.maximintegrated.com

  9. Ewins DJ (2000) Modal testing, theory, practice, and application. Research Studies Press, Hertfordshire, England

    Google Scholar 

  10. Farrar CR, Doebling SW, Nix DA (2001) Vibration-based structural damage identification. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 359(1778):131–149. doi:10.1098/rsta.2000.0717

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  11. Gentile C, Gallino N (2008) Condition assessment and dynamic system identification of a historic suspension footbridge. Struct Control Health Monit 15(3):369–388. doi:10.1002/stc.251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Gičev V, Trifunac MD (2012) A note on predetermined earthquake damage scenarios for structural health monitoring. Struct Control Health Monit 19(8):746–757. doi:10.1002/stc.470

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. GPS (1995) Global position system standard positioning service signal specification. National Coordination Office for Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing, Tech Rep, June 1995

  14. Guidorzi R, Diversi R, Vincenzi L, Simioli V (2010) Mems-Based Sensing For Health Monitoring of Buildings. In: Proceedings of the fifth European workshop structural health monitoring, Sorrento, Italy

  15. Isidori D, Concettoni E, Cristalli C, Lenci S (2011) Experimental setup for real time structural health monitoring: data acquisition and structural modelling issues. Proceedings of ICEDyn 2011, Tavira (PT), ISBN 978-989-96276-1-1

  16. Isidori D, Concettoni E, Cristalli C, Lenci S, Soria L (2012) A combined experimental and theoretical approach to the SHM of structures subjected to seismic loading. International conference on noise and vibration engineering, Leuven, Belgium

  17. Isidori D, Concettoni E, Cristalli C, Lenci S (2012) Study for a structural health monitoring system: experimental tests on a scale model. In: European conference on structural control 2012, Genova, Italy

  18. Isidori D, Concettoni E, Cristalli C, Soria L, Lenci S (2015) Proof of concept of the structural health monitoring of framed structures by a novel combined experimental and theoretical approach. Struct Control Health Monit. doi:10.1002/stc.1811

    Google Scholar 

  19. Khine Myint Mon A, Tin Thet New B, Zaw Min Naing C, Yin Mon Myint D (2008) Analysis on modeling and simulation of low cost MEMS accelerometer ADXL202. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 42:568–571

  20. Merzbacher CI, Kersey AD, Friebele EJ (1996) Fiber optic sensors in concrete structures: a review. Smart Mater Struct. doi:10.1088/0964-1726/5/2/008

    Google Scholar 

  21. MMF (2015) http://www.mmf.de/pdf/1-5.pdf

  22. Mohd-Yasin F, Korman CE, Nagel DJ (2003) Measurement of noise characteristics of MEMS accelerometers. Solid-State Electron 47:357–360

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. NEO-6 u-blox 6 (2011) GPS modules data sheet. http://www.u-blox.com

  24. NMEA 0183 (2015) http://www.nmea.org/. Accessed 01 Aug 2015

  25. OHILib (2015) C library for Freescale Kinetis microcontroller. Open Hardware Ideas Lab (OHILab). Macerata, Italy. https://github.com/ohilab/libohiboard. Accessed 01 Aug 2015

  26. ROGER GPS Repeater Package (2015) http://www.gps-repeating.com

  27. Ragland WS, Penumadu D, Williams RT (2011) Finite element modeling of a full-scale five-girder bridge for structural health monitoring. Struct Health Monit 10(5):449–465. doi:10.1177/1475921710379515

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Tang B, Dodds D (2007) Synchronization of weak indoor GPS signals with doppler using a segmented matched filter and accumulation. Can Conf Electr Comput Eng 2007:1531–1534. doi:10.1109/CCECE.2007.381

    Google Scholar 

  29. Van Diggelen F (2002) Indoor GPS theory implementation. In: Position location and navigation symposium, 2002, pp 240–247. doi:10.1109/PLANS.2002.998914

  30. Worden K, Farrar CR, Haywood J, Todd M (2008) A review of nonlinear dynamics applications to structural health monitoring. Struct Control Health Monit 15(4):540–567. doi:10.1002/stc.215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. XBee Multipoint RF Modules (2015) http://www.digi.com

  32. Yan Y, Cheng L, Wu Z, Yam L (2007) Development in vibration-based structural damage detection technique. Mech Syst Signal Process 21(5):2198–2211. doi:10.1016/j.ymssp.2006.10.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to express their gratitude to all those in the Loccioni Group who contributed to this work with their competence and availability, in particular Nicola Orlandini and Mariano Albanesi. Special appreciation is due to OHILab’s team for the support during development, DICEA department of Polytechnic University of Marche and DRC Italia srl for their collaboration. This work is supported by the SHELL MIUR funded Poject ID.CTN001-00128-111357 "Smart, Living Technologies".

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Marco Giammarini.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Giammarini, M., Isidori, D., Pieralisi, M. et al. Design of a low cost and high performance wireless sensor network for structural health monitoring. Microsyst Technol 22, 1845–1853 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00542-016-2859-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sensor Node
  • Wireless Sensor Network
  • Frequency Response Function
  • Structural Health Monitoring
  • Floor Noise