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2–2 composites based on [011]-poled relaxor-ferroelectric single crystals: analysis of the piezoelectric anisotropy and squared figures of merit for energy harvesting applications

Abstract

In this paper we explore the effect of the orientation of the main crystallographic axes in relaxor-ferroelectric single crystals (SCs) on the piezoelectric anisotropy and squared figures of merit of 2–2 parallel-connected SC/auxetic polymer composites. The single-crystal component for the composite is chosen from the perovskite-type solid solutions with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary and poled along the perovskite unit-cell [011] direction (mm 2 symmetry of domain-engineered SCs). The orientation of the main crystallographic axes in the single-crystal component is observed to strongly influence the piezoelectric coefficients \(d_{3j}^{*}\), squared figures of merit \(d_{3j}^{*}\) \(g_{3j}^{*}\), electromechanical coupling factors \(k_{3j}^{*}\), and hydrostatic analogs of these parameters of the 2–2 composite. Inequalities \(| {d_{33}^{*} /d_{3f}^{*} } | > 5\) and \(| {k_{33}^{*} /k_{3f}^{*} } | > 5\) (f = 1 and 2) are achieved at specific orientations of the main crystallographic axes due to the significant anisotropy of the elastic and piezoelectric properties of the single-crystal component. The use of an auxetic polyethylene (a polymer component with a negative Poisson’s ratio) leads to a significant increase in the hydrostatic parameters. Particular advantages of such composites over conventional ceramic/polymer composites are taken into account for transducer, hydroacoustic, energy harvesting, and other applications.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr. R. Stevens (University of Bath, UK), Prof. Dr. P. Bisegna (University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Italy), and Prof. Dr. A. E. Panich and Prof. Dr. I. A. Parinov (Southern Federal University, Russia) for their interest in the performance of advanced piezo-active composites. This work has been carried out with the financial support from the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia within the framework of the Federal Purposive Programme entitled “Studies and Working out on Priority Directions of the Development of the Research Complex of Russia” for 2007–2013, and Prof. Dr. V. Yu. Topolov acknowledges the aforementioned financial support. The research subject is also concerned with the Programme Supporting the Research at the Southern Federal University (Russia). Prof. Dr. C. R. Bowen would like to acknowledge funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement no. 320963 on Novel Energy Materials, Engineering Science and Integrated Systems (NEMESIS).

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Correspondence to C. R. Bowen.

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Bowen, C.R., Betts, D.N., Kim, H.A. et al. 2–2 composites based on [011]-poled relaxor-ferroelectric single crystals: analysis of the piezoelectric anisotropy and squared figures of merit for energy harvesting applications. Microsyst Technol 20, 709–717 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00542-013-2012-8

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00542-013-2012-8

Keywords

  • Energy Harvesting
  • Piezoelectric Coefficient
  • Anisotropy Factor
  • Electromechanical Property
  • Electromechanical Coupling Factor