Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 577–582 | Cite as

A water-immersible 2-axis scanning mirror microsystem for ultrasound andha photoacoustic microscopic imaging applications

  • Chih-Hsien Huang
  • Junjie Yao
  • Lihong V. Wang
  • Jun Zou
Technical Paper

Abstract

Fast scanning is highly desired for both ultrasound and photoacoustic microscopic imaging, whereas the liquid environment required for acoustic propagation limits the usage of traditional microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanning mirrors. Here, a new water-immersible scanning mirror microsystem has been designed, fabricated and tested. To achieve reliable underwater scanning, flexible polymer torsion hinges fabricated by laser micromachining were used to support the reflective silicon mirror plate. Two efficient electromagnetic microactuators consisting of compact RF choke inductors and high-strength neodymium magnet disc were constructed to drive the silicon mirror plate around a fast axis and a slow axis. The performance of this water-immersible scanning mirror microsystem in both air and water were tested using the laser tracing method. For the fast axis, the resonance frequency reached 224 Hz in air and 164 Hz in water, respectively. The scanning angles in both air and water under ±16 V DC driving were ±12°. The scanning angles in air and water under ±10 V AC driving (at the resonance frequencies) were ±13.6° and ±10°. For the slow axis, the resonance frequency reached 55 Hz in air and 38 Hz in water, respectively. The scanning angles in both air and water under ±10 V DC driving were ±6.5°. The scanning angles in air and water under ±10 V AC driving (at the resonance frequencies) were ±8.5° and ±6°. The feasibility of using such a water-immersible scanning mirror microsystem for scanning ultrasound microscopic imaging has been demonstrated with a 25-MHz ultrasound pulse/echo system and a target consisting of three optical fibers.

References

  1. Chen WH, Gottlieb EJ, Cannata JM, Chen YF, Shung KK (2000) Development of sector scanning ultrasonic backscatter microscope. 2000 IEEE Ultrasonics SymposiumGoogle Scholar
  2. Cornelis AVE, John ES (2006) Resonant frequencies of a rectangular cantilever beam immersed in a fluid. J Appl Phys 100:114916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hagelin PM, Krishnamoorthy U, Heritage JP, Solgaard O (2000) Scalable optical cross-connect switch using micromachined mirrors. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett 12:882–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hyejun R, Piyawattanametha W, Taguchi Y, Daesung L, Mandella MJ, Solgaard O (2007) Two-dimensional MEMS scanner for dual-axes confocal microscopy. J Microelectromech Syst 16:969–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jung WY, Tang S, McCormic DT, Xie TQ, Ahn YC, Su JP, Tomov IV, Krasieva TB, Tromberg BJ, Chen ZP (2008) Miniaturized probe based on a microelectromechanical system mirror for multiphoton microscopy. Opt Lett 33:1324–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Liu C (2006) Foundations of MEMS. Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  7. Wang LV (2009) Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography. Nat Photonics 3:503–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Wang L, Maslov K, Yao J, Rao B, Wang LV (2011) Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy. Opt Lett 36:139–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Yang VXD, Mao YX, Standish BA, Munce NR, Chiu S, Burnes D, Wilson BC, Vitkin IA, Himmer PA, Dickensheets DL (2006) Doppler optical coherence tomography with a micro-electro-mechanical membrane mirror for high-speed dynamic focus tracking. Opt Lett 31:1262–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Yao J, Wang LV (2011) Photoacoustic tomography: fundamentals, advances and prospects. Contrast Media Mol Imaging 6:332–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Yao J, Maslov KI, Zhang Y, Xia Y, Wang LV (2011) Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo. J Biomed Opt 16:076003CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chih-Hsien Huang
    • 1
  • Junjie Yao
    • 2
  • Lihong V. Wang
    • 2
  • Jun Zou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical EngineeringWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations