Journal of Anesthesia

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 480–489 | Cite as

The effects of feeding on the development of metabolic acidosis in the rat: Comparison between perfused liverin situ and whole animal

  • Michiko Sakai
  • Mikiko Yamakawa
  • Hideo Horikawa
  • Kunio Ichiyanagi
Original Articles


Rat liver perfused in situ was charged with two concentrations of halothane. Lactate increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner in the liver of the fed rat, whereas its increase in the starved rat was much milder (1.7 → 9.2 mmol·l −1 → 1vs 0.6 → 1.4 mmol·l −1 after a 3 hr charge with 6.0% halothane). Base excess decreased also more markedly in the fed rat. Glucose increased 2.3 times the control value in the fed rat, whereas it did not change significantly in the starved rat. Changes produced by enflurane were very similar to those produced by halothane. It was inferred that in the presence of halothane and enflurane, hepatic glycogen was transformed into glucose and then to lactate by the inhibition of NADH dehydrogenase. In the liver of the starved rat, glucose, hence lactate, did not increase because of the depletion of glycogen.

When halothane (1.9%) was given to the whole animal, changes in lactate, base excess and glucose in the arterial blood were very mild. Marked disparities in these parameters between the two experimental models were inferred to be due to: 1) possible insinuation of anaerobic metabolism in the perfusion experiments, 2) a well-kept balance between the suppression of cellular metabolic activity and inhibition of energy production by halothane in the whole animal, and 3) involvement of neural and humoral factors in the intact whole animal.

Key words

feeding liver perfusion glucose metabolic acidosis halothane 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Mortimore GE, Tietze F: Studies on the mechanism of capture and degradation of insulin-I131 by the cyclically perfused rat liver. Ann NY Acad Sci 82:329–331, 1959CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Woods HF, Krebs HA: Lactate production in the perfused rat liver. Biochem J 125–139, 1971Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Biebuyck JF, Lund P, Krebs HA: The effects of halothane (2-bromo-2chloro- 1,1,1-trifuluoroethane) on glycolysis and biosynthetic process of the isolated perfused rat liver. Biochem J 128:111–120, 1972Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohen PJ: Effect of anesthetics on mitochondrial function. Anesthesiology 39:153–164, 1973CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Merin RG, Samuelson PN, Schalch DS: Major inhalation anesthetics and carbohydrate metabolism. Anesth Analg 50:625–633, 1971CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaniaris P, Lekakis D, Kykoniatis M, et al: Serum free fatty acid and blood sugar levels in children under halothane, thiopentone and ketamine anesthesia. Canad Anaesth Soc J 22:509–518, 1975CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oyama T, Takazawa T: Effects of halothane anesthesia and surgery on human growth hormone and insulin levels in plasma. Br J Anaesth 43:573–580, 1971CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Black GW, Mckane RV: Respiratory and metabolic changes during methoxyflurane anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 37: 409–414, 1965CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yamazaki T, Naito H, Nakamura K, et al: Lactate, pyruvate, and excess lactate during ether and halothane anesthesia in infants and children. Anesthesiology 43:410–415, 1975CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nilsson L, Siesjo BK: The effect of anesthetics upon labile phosphates and upon extra- and intracellular lactate, pyruvate and bicarbonate concentrations in the rat brain. Acta Physiol Scand 80:235–248, 1970CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Horikawa H, Ito Y, Naito E, et al: Halothane anesthesia and adenine nucleotide contents of canine liver and muscle. Acta Med BioI 27:43–47, 1979Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hall GK, Kirtland SJ, Baum H: The inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by inhalational anaesthetic agents. Br J Anaesth 45:1005–1009, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michiko Sakai
    • 1
  • Mikiko Yamakawa
    • 1
  • Hideo Horikawa
    • 1
  • Kunio Ichiyanagi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiaYamagata University School of MedicicneYamagataJapan

Personalised recommendations