Journal of Anesthesia

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 126–128 | Cite as

Combination of oral ketamine and midazolam as a premedication for a severely autistic and combative patient

  • Shailesh Shah
  • Sonia Shah
  • Jesus Apuya
  • Senthil Gopalakrishnan
  • Timothy Martin
Clinical Report


Patients with impaired ability to understand and communicate can be difficult to manage perioperatively. They frequently require lateral thinking on the part of the anesthesiologists to make the induction process as smooth as possible. We present a case of a severely autistic and violent patient scheduled for dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. A combination of oral ketamine and midazolam was mixed in the beverage Dr Pepper to mask the taste and the appearance of the drugs. The unique flavor of Dr Pepper is well suited to increase the palatibility and the acceptability of medications in children and patients with developmental delay.

Key words

Premedication Oral ketamine Oral midazolam Autistic patient 


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shailesh Shah
    • 1
  • Sonia Shah
    • 1
  • Jesus Apuya
    • 1
  • Senthil Gopalakrishnan
    • 1
  • Timothy Martin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Pain MedicineArkansas Children’s HospitalLittle RockUSA

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