Proton pump inhibitors as risk factor for metabolic syndrome and hepatic steatosis in coeliac disease patients on gluten-free diet
- 344 Downloads
Recent research has shown that patients with coeliac disease (CD) are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) and hepatic steatosis (HS) after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD). This study aimed to evaluate the predictive factors for MS and HS in CD after 1 year of GFD.
All consecutive newly diagnosed CD patients were enrolled. We prospectively collected data about BMI; waist circumference; blood pressure; cholesterol; triglycerides, glucose and insulin blood levels; insulin resistance (through the homeostatic model assessment HOMA-IR) and treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Diagnosis of MS was made in accordance with current guidelines and HS was diagnosed by ultrasonography. The prevalence of MS and HS was re-assessed after 1 year of GFD. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for MS and HS occurrence after 1 year of GFD.
Of 301 patients with newly diagnosed CD, 4.3% met criteria for diagnosis of MS and 25.9% presented with HS at the time of CD diagnosis; 99 subjects (32.8%) had long-term exposure to PPI during the study period. After 1 year, 72 (23.9%) patients had developed MS (4.3 vs 23.9%; p < 0.001, OR 6.9) and 112 (37.2%) had developed HS (25.9 vs 37.2%; p < 0.01, OR 1.69). At multivariate analysis, high BMI at diagnosis (OR 10.8; p < 0.001) and PPI exposure (OR 22.9; p < 0.001) were the only factors associated with the occurrence of MS; HOMA-IR (OR 9.7; p < 0.001) and PPI exposure (OR 9.2; p < 0.001) were the only factors associated with the occurrence of HS.
PPI exposure adds further risk of occurrence of MS and HS for patients with CD on GFD. The use of PPI in patients with CD on GFD should be limited to strict indications.
KeywordsCoeliac disease Proton pump inhibitors Metabolic syndrome Hepatic steatosis
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 5.Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE, et al. The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association. Hepatology. 2012;55:2005–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Rydén L, Grant PJ, Anker SD, et al. ESC guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD: the task force on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and developed in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur Heart J. 2013;34:3035–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 21.Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009;120:1640–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 22.WHO. STEPwise approach to surveillance (STEPS). Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO); 2008.Google Scholar
- 23.WHO. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1995;854:1–452.Google Scholar