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Association between metabolic syndrome and prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in a health screening facility in Japan

Abstract

Background

Abdominal fat accumulation, which induces high intra-abdominal pressure that causes increase in the gastroesophageal pressure gradient and hiatal hernia, as well as obesity, has been shown to increase the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study was performed to clarify the association between metabolic syndrome and the prevalence of GERD.

Methods

The study subjects were an adult population who visited a medical center for annual medical check-ups from April 2010 to March 2011. GERD was diagnosed by the presence of endoscopically proven reflux esophagitis, GERD symptoms (QUEST score ≥6), or current medical therapy for GERD. The presence of metabolic or pre-metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome.

Results

Six hundred four (16.0 %) of 3775 study subjects were positively diagnosed with GERD, with the number of those with metabolic and pre-metabolic syndrome being 477 (12.6 %) and 384 (10.2 %), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that male gender, presence of hiatal hernia, and metabolic or pre-metabolic syndrome, as well as absence of gastric mucosal atrophy, were significant predictive factors for the prevalence of GERD, as were visceral fat accumulation and untreated dyslipidemia. Untreated hypertension and untreated hyperglycemia were also considered to be positive risk factors. Subjects undergoing treatment for hypertension showed an increased risk of GERD, while those undergoing treatment for dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus showed a decreased risk.

Conclusion

Metabolic syndrome is a reliable predictive factor for the prevalence of GERD, and medical therapy for metabolic syndrome may modify the risk of GERD occurrence.

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Acknowledgments

This study was partially supported by a grant from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology-Japan (No. 22590681).

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None of the authors have any conflicts of interest associated with this study.

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Correspondence to Kyoichi Adachi.

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Niigaki, M., Adachi, K., Hirakawa, K. et al. Association between metabolic syndrome and prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in a health screening facility in Japan. J Gastroenterol 48, 463–472 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00535-012-0671-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00535-012-0671-3

Keywords

  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Reflux esophagitis
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease