Skip to main content

Early–Middle Jurassic metamorphic and non-metamorphic supra-subduction zone ophiolite fragments in a Late Cretaceous ophiolitic mélange (northern Turkey): implications for long-lived and supra-subduction zone ophiolite formation

Abstract

The Late Cretaceous accretionary complexes along the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan (IAE) Neo-Tethyan suture zone in northern Turkey record the subduction–accretion processes of the oceanic lithosphere ranging in age from the Late Triassic to the Late Cretaceous. These accretionary complexes contain fragments of Early and Middle Jurassic metamorphic and non-metamorphic ophiolites. Here, we report new geochemical and geochronological data from the metamorphic and non-metamorphic ophiolitic rocks, which are observed in the Tekelidağ mélange (northern Sivas) of the IAE suture zone. Geochemical characteristics of these rocks point to formation in a subduction-related tectonic setting. Igneous zircons from meta-plagiogranite injected into the meta-ophiolitic rocks yielded zircon U–Pb age of 188 ± 4 Ma (2σ, Early Jurassic), and those from a non-metamorphic plagiogranite crosscutting the non-metamorphic ophiolitic rocks gave an age value of 168 ± 2 Ma (2σ, Middle Jurassic). The igneous crystallization age of the non-metamorphic plagiogranite is identical with the metamorphic age of meta-ophiolitic rocks, which has been dated as Middle Jurassic (166.7 ± 2 Ma, 2σ) by the 40Ar–39Ar method. These age data indicate that (i) the supra-subduction zone ophiolite formation lasted about 20 Ma, (ii) the supra-subduction zone ophiolite and the meta-ophiolitic rocks formed simultaneously in the Middle Jurassic, and (iii) the meta-ophiolitic rocks are remnants of the metamorphosed equivalents of the Early Jurassic supra-subduction zone oceanic crust. The supra-subduction zone ophiolite formation probably occurred over an extended period of time in the Jurassic Neo-Tethys.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  • Agard P, Yamato P, Soret M, Prigent C, Guillot S, Plunder A, Dubacq B, Chauvet A, Monié P (2016) Plate interface rheological switches during subduction infancy: Control on slab penetration and metamorphic sole formation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 451:208–220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agard P, Plunder A, Angiboust S, Bonnet G, Ruh J (2018) The subduction plate interface: rock record and mechanical coupling (from long to short timescales). Lithos 320:537–566

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alparslan G, Dilek Y (2018) Seafloor spreading structure, geochronology, and tectonic evolution of the Küre ophiolite, Turkey: a Jurassic continental backarc basin oceanic lithosphere in southern Eurasia. Lithosphere 10(1):14–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Balcı U, Sayit K (2020) Diabase dykes from Boğazkale (Çorum), Central Anatolia: geochemical insights into the geodynamical evolution of the northern branch of Neotethys. Geochemistry 80(2):125602

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bağcı U, Parlak O, Hock V (2005) Whole-rock and mineral chemistry of cumulates from the Kizildag (Hatay) ophiolite (Turkey): clues for multiple magma generation during crustal accretion in the southern Neotethyan ocean. Mineral Mag 69:53–76

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bédard JH (1999) Petrogenesis of boninites from the Betts Cove ophiolite, Newfoundland, Canada: identification of subducted source components. J Petrol 40(12):1853–1889

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bonnet G, Agard P, Whitechurch H, Fournier M, Angiboust S, Caron B, Omrani J (2020) Fossil seamount in southeast Zagros records intraoceanic arc to back-arc transition: new constraints for the evolution of the Neotethys. Gondwana Res 81:423–444

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bortolotti V, Chiari M, Göncüoğlu MC, Principi G, Saccani E, Tekin UK, Tassinari R (2018) The Jurassic-Early Cretaceous basalt–chert association in the ophiolites of the Ankara Mélange, east of Ankara, Turkey: age and geochemistry. Geol Mag 155:451–478

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cameron WE, McCulloch MT, Walker DA (1983) Boninite petrogenesis: chemical and Nd-Sr isotopic constraints. Earth Planet Sci Lett 65(1):75–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cann JR (1970) Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb in some ocean floor basaltic rocks. Earth Planet Sci Lett 10(1):7–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clift P, Vannucchi P (2004) Controls on tectonic accretion versus erosion in subduction zones: implications for the origin and recycling of the continental crust. Rev Geophys 42(2):1–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clift D, Hartley AJ (2007) Slow rates of subduction erosion and coastal underplating along the Andean margin of Chile and Peru. Geology 35(6):503–506

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen KM, Finney SC, Gibbard L, Fan J-X (2013) The ICS international chronostratigraphic chart. Episodes 36:199–204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çelik ÖF (2007) Metamorphic sole rocks and their mafic dykes in the eastern Tauride belt ophiolites (southern Turkey): implications for OIB-type magma generation following slab break-off. Geol Mag 144(5):849–866

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çelik ÖF (2008) Detailed geochemistry and K-Ar geochronology of the metamorphic sole rocks and their mafic dykes from the Mersin Ophiolite, Southern Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 17(4):685–708

    Google Scholar 

  • Çelik ÖF, Delaloye MF (2003) Origin of metamorphic soles and their post-kinematic mafic dyke swarms in the Antalya and Lycian ophiolites SW Turkey. Geol J 38(3–4):235–256

    Google Scholar 

  • Çelik ÖF, Delaloye MF (2006) Characteristics of ophiolite-related metamorphic rocks in the Beyşehir ophiolitic mélange (Central Taurides, Turkey), deduced from whole rock and mineral chemistry. J Asian Earth Sci 26(5):461–476

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çelik ÖF, Delaloye M, Feraud G (2006) Precise 40Ar-39Ar ages from the metamorphic sole rocks of the Tauride Belt Ophiolites, southern Turkey: implications for the rapid cooling history. Geol Mag 143(2):213–227

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çelik ÖF, Marzoli A, Marschik R, Chiaradia M, Neubauer F, Öz İ (2011) Early-Middle Jurassic intra-oceanic subduction in the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Ocean, Northern Turkey. Tectonophysics 509:120–134

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çelik ÖF, Chiaradia M, Marzoli A, Billor Z, Marschik R (2013) The Eldivan ophiolite and volcanic rocks in the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone, Northern Turkey geochemistry, whole-rock geochemical and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic characteristics. Lithos 172–173:31–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çelik ÖF, Chiaradia M, Marzoli A, Özkan M, Billor Z, Topuz G (2016) Jurassic metabasic rocks in the Kızılırmak accretionary complex (Kargı region, Central Pontides, Northern Turkey). Tectonophysics 672–673:34–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çelik ÖF, Marzoli A, Marschik R, Chiaradia M, Mathur R (2018) Geochemical, mineralogical and Re-Os isotopic constraints on the origin of Tethyan oceanic mantle and crustal rocks from the Central Pontides, northern Turkey. Mineral Petrol 112:25–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çelik ÖF, Özkan M, Chelle-Michou C, Sherlock S, Marzoli A, Ulianov A, Altıntaş İE, Topuz G (2019a) Blueschist facies overprint of late Triassic Tethyan oceanic crust in a subduction–accretion complex in north-central Anatolia. Turk J Geol Soc 176(5):945–957

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çelik ÖF, Topuz G, Billor Z, Özkan M (2019b) Middle Jurassic subduction-related ophiolite fragment in Triassic accretionary complex (Mamu Dağı ophiolite, Northern Turkey). Int Geol Rev 61(16):2021–2035

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çimen O, Göncüoğlu MC, Simonetti A, Sayit K (2018) New zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages and Hf isotope data from the Central Pontides (Turkey): geological and geodynamic constraints. J Geodyn 116:23–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çörtük RM, Çelik ÖF, Özkan M, Sherlock SC, Marzoli A, Altıntaş İE, Topuz G (2016) Origin and geodynamic environments of the metamorphic sole rocks from the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (Tokat, northern Turkey). Int Geol Rev 58:1839–1855

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çörtük RM, Çelik ÖF, Özkan M, Marzoli A (2018) The origin of the basic-ultrabasic rocks in the accretionary complex (southern Tokat) from the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. İstanbul Yerbilimleri Dergisi 28:145–161

    Google Scholar 

  • Çörtük RM, Çelik ÖF, Alkan A, Özkan M, Özyavaş A (2020) Distribution of rocks in Pınarbaşı Ophiolite from central Anatolia (Turkey) based on analysis of ASTER and Landsat-8 data. Geol J 55(10):6810–6822

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Çörtük RM, Çelik ÖF, Özkan M, Marzoli A, Alkan A (2022) The origin and PT conditions of the metamorphic sole rocks beneath the Late Cretaceous Pınarbaşı Ophiolite, Eastern-Central Anatolia. Int Geol Rev. https://doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2022.2045638

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dangerfield A, Harris R, Sarıfakıoğlu E, Dilek Y (2011) Tectonic evolution of the Ankara Mélange and associated Eldivan ophiolite near Hançili, central Turkey. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 480:143–169

    Google Scholar 

  • Dimo-Lahitte A, Monie P, Vergely P (2001) Metamorphic soles from the Albanian ophiolites: Petrology, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and geodynamic evolution. Tectonics 20:78–96

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dilek Y, Thy P (2006) Age and petrogenesis of plagiogranite intrusions in the Ankara, mélange, central Turkey. Island Arc 15:44–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dilek Y, Furnes H, Shallo M (2008) Geochemistry of the Jurassic Mirdita Ophiolite (Albania) and the MORB to SSZ evolution of a marginal basin oceanic crust. Lithos 100:174–209

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dilek Y, Furnes H (2011) Ophiolite genesis and global tectonics: geochemical and tectonic fingerprinting of ancient oceanic lithosphere. Geol Soc Am Bull 123:387–411

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dilek Y, Furnes H (2014) Ophiolites and their origins. Elements 10:93–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Encarnación J (2004) Multiple ophiolite generation preserved in the northern Philippines and the growth of an island arc complex. Tectonophysics 392(1–4):103–130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Furnes H, Safonova I (2019) Ophiolites of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: geochemical and petrological characterization and tectonic settings. Geosci Front 10(4):1255–1284

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Galoyan G, Rolland Y, Sosson M, Corsini M, Billo S, Verati C, Melkonyan R (2009) Geology, geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar dating of Sevan ophiolites (Lesser Caucasus, Armenia): evidence for Jurassic Back-arc opening and hot spot event between the South Armenian Block and Eurasia. J Asian Earth Sci 34(2):135–153

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Göçmengil G, Altıntaş E, Topuz G, Çelik ÖF, Özkan M (2013) Diverse tectonic settings of formation of the metaigneous rocks in the Jurassic metamorphic accretionary complexes (Refahiye, NE Turkey) and their geodynamic implications. Geodin Acta 26:294–310

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Göçmengil G, Karacık Z, Genç ŞC, Billor MZ (2018) 40Ar-39Ar geochronology and petrogenesis of post-collisional trachytic volcanism along the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (NE, Turkey). Turk J Earth Sci 27:1–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Göçmengil G, Karacık Z, Genç ŞC, Prelević D, Billor Z (2019) 40Ar-39Ar ages and petrogenesis of middle Eocene post-collisional volcanic rocks along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone NE Turkey. J Asian Earth Sci 173:121–142

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gökten E, Floyd A (2007) Stratigraphy and geochemistry of pillow basalts within the ophiolitic mélange of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone: implications for the geotectonic character of the northern branch of Neotethys. Int J Earth Sci 96:725–741

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Göncüoğlu MC (1986) Geochronological data from the southern part (Niğde area) of the Central Anatolian Massif. Bull Miner Res Explor 105:83–96

    Google Scholar 

  • Göncüoğlu MC (2010) Introduction to the geology of Turkey: geodynamic evolution of the pre-alpine and alpine terranes. MTA Monogr Series 5:1–66

    Google Scholar 

  • Göncüoğlu MC, Gürsu S, Tekin UK, Köksal S (2008) New data on the evolution of the Neotethyan oceanic branches in Turkey: late Jurassic ridge spreading in the Intra-Pontide branch. Ofioliti 33(2):153–164

    Google Scholar 

  • Göncüoğlu MC, Sayıt K, Tekin UK (2010) Oceanization of the northern Neotethys: geochemical evidence from ophiolitic melange basalts within the İzmir-Ankara suture belt, NW Turkey. Lithos 116:175–187

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Göncüoğlu MC, Marroni M, Pandolfi L, Ellero A, Ottria G, Catanzariti R, Sayit K (2014) The Arkot Dağ Mélange in Araç area, central Turkey: evidence of its origin within the geodynamic evolution of the Intra-Pontide suture zone. J Asian Earth Sci 85:117–139

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guilmette C, Hébert R, Wang C, Villeneuve M (2009) Geochemistry and geochronology of the metamorphic sole underlying the Xigaze ophiolite, Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, south Tibet. Lithos 112(1–2):149–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guilmette C, Smit MA, van Hinsbergen DJ, Gürer D, Corfu F, Charette B, Savard D (2018) Forced subduction initiation recorded in the sole and crust of the Semail Ophiolite of Oman. Nat Geosci 11(9):688–695

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hacker BR (1991) The role of deformation in the formation of metamorphic gradients: ridge subduction beneath the Oman ophiolite. Tectonics 10(2):455–473

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hacker BR (1994) Rapid emplacement of young oceanic lithosphere: argon geochronology of the Oman ophiolite. Science 265(5178):1563–1565

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hacker BR, Mosenfelder JL, Gnos E (1996) Rapid emplacement of the Oman ophiolite: thermal and geochronologic constraints. Tectonics 15:1230–1247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hässig M, Rolland Y, Sosson M, Galoyan G, Sahakyan L, Topuz G, Çelik ÖF, Avagyan A, Müller C (2013) Linking the NE Anatolian and Lesser Caucasus ophiolites: evidence for large-scale obduction of oceanic crust and implications for the formation of the Lesser Caucasus-Pontides Arc. Geodin Acta 26:311–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoskin W, Schaltegger U (2003) The composition of zircon and igneous and metamorphic petrogenesis. Rev Miner Geochem 53(1):27–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Hinsbergen DJ, Peters K, Maffione M, Spakman W, Guilmette C, Thieulot C, Kaymakcı N (2015) Dynamics of intraoceanic subduction initiation: 2. Suprasubduction zone ophiolite formation and metamorphic sole exhumation in context of absolute plate motions. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 16(6):1771–1785

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jones G, Robertson AHF, Cann JR (1991) Genesis and emplacement of the supra-subduction zone Pindos ophiolite, northwestern Greece. Ophiolite genesis and evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 771–799

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Ishizuka O, Tani K, Reagan MK, Kanayama K, Umino S, Harigane Y, Dunkley DJ (2011) The timescales of subduction initiation and subsequent evolution of an oceanic island arc. Earth Planet Sci Lett 306(3–4):229–240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kadıoğlu YK, Dilek Y, Foland KA (2006) Slab break-off and syncollisional origin of the Late Cretaceous magmatism in the Central Anatolian crystalline complex, Turkey. In Dilek, Y, and Pavlides, S, eds, Postcollisional tectonics and magmatism in the Mediterranean region and Asia, vol 409. Geological Society of America Special Paper, Boulder, Colorado, USA, pp 381–415

  • Karaoğlan F, Parlak O, Klötzli URS, Thoeni M, Koller F (2013) U-Pb and Sm–Nd geochronology of the Kızıldağ (Hatay, Turkey) ophiolite: implications for the timing and duration of suprasubduction zone type oceanic crust formation in the southern Neotethys. Geol Mag 150(2):283–299

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keenan TE, Encarnación J, Buchwaldt R, Fernandez D, Mattinson J, Rasoazanamparany C, Luetkemeyer B (2016) Rapid conversion of an oceanic spreading center to a subduction zone inferred from high-precision geochronology. Proc Natl Acad Sci 113(47):1–8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kukowski N, Oncken O (2006) Subduction erosion—The “normal” mode of fore-arc material transfer along the Chilean margin? The Andes. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 217–236

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Lallemand S (2016) Philippine Sea Plate inception, evolution, and consumption with special emphasis on the early stages of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction. Prog Earth Planet Sci 3(1):15

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lefebvre C, Meijers MJ, Kaymakci N, Peynircioğlu A, Langereis CG, Van Hinsbergen DJ (2013) Reconstructing the geometry of central Anatolia during the late Cretaceous: Large-scale Cenozoic rotations and deformation between the Pontides and Taurides. Earth Planet Sci Lett 366:83–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leitch EC (1984) Island arc elements and arc-related ophiolites. Tectonophysics 106(3–4):177–203

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liati A, Gebauer D, Fanning CM (2004) The age of ophiolitic rocks of the Hellenides (Vourinos, Pindos, Crete): first U-Pb ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon ages. Chem Geol 207(3–4):171–188

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maffione M, Thieulot C, Van Hinsbergen DJ, Morris A, Plümper O, Spakman W (2015) Dynamics of intraoceanic subduction initiation: 1. Oceanic detachment fault inversion and the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites. Geochem, Geophys, Geosyst 16(6):1753–1770

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marroni M, Frassi C, Göncüoğlu MC, Di Vincenzo G, Pandolfi L, Rebay G, Ottria G (2014) Late Jurassic amphibolite-facies metamorphism in the Intra-Pontide Suture Zone (Turkey): an eastward extension of the Vardar Ocean from the Balkans into Anatolia? J Geol Soc 171(5):605–608

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Metcalf RV, Shervais JW (2008) Suprasubduction-zone ophiolites: Is there really an ophiolite conundrum? Spec Pap-Geol Soc Am 438:191–222

    Google Scholar 

  • Moghadam HS, Stern RJ (2011) Geodynamic evolution of Upper Cretaceous Zagros ophiolites: formation of oceanic lithosphere above a nascent subduction zone. Geol Mag 148(5–6):762–801

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moghadam HS, Corfu F, Chiaradia M, Stern RJ, Ghorbani G (2014) Sabzevar Ophiolite, NE Iran: Progress from embryonic oceanic lithosphere into magmatic arc constrained by new isotopic and geochemical data. Lithos 210:224–241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moghadam HS, Stern RJ, Griffin WL, Khedr MZ, Kirchenbaur M, Ottley CJ, O’Reilly SY (2020) Subduction initiation and back-arc opening north of Neo-Tethys: Evidence from the Late Cretaceous Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolite of NE Iran. Bulletin 132(5–6):1083–1105

    Google Scholar 

  • Moores EM (1982) Origin and emplacement of ophiolites. Rev Geophys 20(4):735–760

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MTA (General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration) (2002) Geological map of Turkey: General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration Publication, scale 1/500,000, 18 sheets

  • Okay AI, Tüysüz O (1999) Tethyan sutures of northern Turkey. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 156(1):475–515

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Okay AI, Göncüoğlu MC (2004) The Karakaya Complex: a review of data and concepts. Turkish J Earth Sci 3:75–95

    Google Scholar 

  • Okay AI, Altiner D (2007) A condensed Mesozoic succession north of İzmir: a fragment of the Anatolide-Tauride platform in the Bornova Flysch Zone. Turk J Earth Sci 16(3):257–279

    Google Scholar 

  • Okay AI, Sunal G, Sherlock S, Altıner D, Tüysüz O, Kylander-Clark AR, Aygül M (2013) Early Cretaceous sedimentation and orogeny on the active margin of Eurasia: Southern Central Pontides Turkey. Tectonics 32(5):1247–1271

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Okay AI, Altiner D, Sunal G, Aygül M, Akdoğan R, Altiner S, Simmons M (2018) Geological evolution of the Central Pontides. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 464(1):33–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Okay AI, Sunal G, Sherlock S, Kylander-Clark AR, Özcan E (2020) İzmir-Ankara Suture as a Triassic to Cretaceous Plate Boundary—Data From Central Anatolia. Tectonics 39(5):e2019TC005849

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Okay AI, Altıner D, Danelian T, Topuz G, Özcan E, Kylander-Clark AR (2022) Subduction-accretion complex with boninitic ophiolite slices and Triassic limestone seamounts: Ankara Mélange, central Anatolia. Geol Mag. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756822000504

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Özgül N (1976) Some geological aspects of the Taurus orogenic belt (Turkey). Bull Geol Soc Turkey 19:65–78

    Google Scholar 

  • Özkan M, Çelik ÖF, Özyavaş A (2018) Lithological discrimination of accretionary complex (Sivas, northern Turkey) using novel hybrid color composites and field data. J Afr Earth Sc 138:75–85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Özkan M, Çelik ÖF, Soycan H, Çörtük RM, Marzoli A (2020) The Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous basalt-radiolarian chert association from the Tekelidağ Mélange, eastern İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (northern Turkey). Cretaceous Res 107:104280

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parlak O, Yılmaz H, Boztuğ D (2006) Geochemistry and tectonic setting of the metamorphic sole rocks and isolated dykes from the Divriği ophiolite (Sivas, Turkey): Evidence for melt generation within an asthenospheric window prior to ophiolite emplacement. Turk J Earth Sci 15:25–45

    Google Scholar 

  • Parlak O, Karaoğlan F, Rızaoğlu T, Klötzli U, Koller F, Billor Z (2013a) U-Pb and 40Ar–39Ar geochronology of the ophiolites and granitoids from the Tauride belt: Implications for the evolution of the Inner Tauride suture. J Geodyn 65:22–37

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parlak O, Çolakoğlu A, Dönmez C, Sayak H, Yıldırım N, Türkel A, Odabası İ (2013b) Geochemistry and tectonic significance of ophiolites along the İzmir–Ankara–Erzincan Suture Zone in northeastern Anatolia. In: Robertson AHF, Parlak O, Ünlügenç UC (eds) Geological Development of Anatolia and the Easternmost Mediterranean Region, vol 372. Geological Society London Special Publications, London, pp 75–105

    Google Scholar 

  • Parlak O, Dunkl I, Karaoğlan F, Kusky TM, Zhang C, Wang L, Şimşek G (2019) Rapid cooling history of a Neotethyan ophiolite: Evidence for contemporaneous subduction initiation and metamorphic sole formation. Bulletin 131(11–12):2011–2038

    Google Scholar 

  • Pearce JA (2003) Supra-subduction zone ophiolites: the search for modern analogues. Special Papers-Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA, pp 269–294

  • Pearce JA (2008) Geochemical fingerprinting of oceanic basalts with applications to ophiolite classification and the search for Archean oceanic crust. Lithos 100:14–48

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pearce JA (2014) Immobile element fingerprinting of ophiolites. Elements 10:101–108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pearce JA, Lippard SJ, Roberts S (1984) Characteristics and tectonic significance of supra-subduction zone ophiolites. In: Kokelaar BP, Howells MF (eds) Marginal basin geology: Volcanic and associated sedimentary and tectonic processes in modern and ancient marginal basins, vol 16. Geological Society of London Special Publication, London, pp 74–94

    Google Scholar 

  • Pearce JA, Peate DW (1995) Tectonic implications of the composition of volcanic arc magmas. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 23(1):251–285

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pearce JA, Robinson T (2010) The Troodos ophiolitic complex probably formed in a subduction initiation, slab edge setting. Gondwana Res 18(1):60–81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Plunder A, Agard P, Chopin C, Soret M, Okay AI, Whitechurch H (2016) Metamorphic sole formation, emplacement and blueschist facies overprint: early subduction dynamics witnessed by western Turkey ophiolites. Terra Nova 28(5):329–339

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Plunder A, Bandyopadhyay D, Ganerød M, Advokaat EL, Ghosh B, Bandopadhyay P, van Hinsbergen DJ (2020) History of subduction polarity reversal during arc-continent collision: constraints from the Andaman ophiolite and its metamorphic sole. Tectonics 39(6):e2019TC005762

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Poisson A (1977) In: Universite de Paris-Sud (eds), Recherches geologiques Dans les Taurides Occidentales (Turquie). Thesis

  • Pourteau A, Scherer EE, Schorn S, Bast R, Schmidt A, Ebert L (2019) Thermal evolution of an ancient subduction interface revealed by Lu–Hf garnet geochronology, Halilbağı Complex (Anatolia). Geosci Front 10(1):127–148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reagan MK, Ishizuka O, Stern RJ, Kelley KA, Ohara Y, Blichert-Toft J, Sherman HB, Cash J, Frye P, Hanan BB, Hickey-Vargas R, Ishii T, Kimura J, Peate DW, Rowe MC, Woods M (2010) Fore-arc basalts and subduction initiation in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana system. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 11(3):1–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reagan MK, Heaton DE, Schmitz MD, Pearce JA, Shervais JW, Koppers AA (2019) Forearc ages reveal extensive short-lived and rapid seafloor spreading following subduction initiation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 506:520–529

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rice SP, Robertson AH, Ustaömer T (2006) Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Eurasian active margin in the Central and Eastern Pontides, northern Turkey. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 260(1):413–445

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rice SP, Robertson AH, Ustaömer T, Inan N, Tasli K (2009) Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene tectonic development of the Tethyan suture zone in the Erzincan area, Eastern Pontides, Turkey. Geol Mag 146:567–590

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rioux M, Garber J, Bauer A, Bowring S, Searle M, Kelemen P, Hacker B (2016) Synchronous formation of the metamorphic sole and igneous crust of the Semail ophiolite: New constraints on the tectonic evolution during ophiolite formation from high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology. Earth Planet Sci Lett 451:185–195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robertson AH (2002) Overview of the genesis and emplacement of Mesozoic ophiolites in the Eastern Mediterranean Tethyan region. Lithos 65(1–2):1–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robertson AHF, Parlak O, Ustaömer T (2009) Melange genesis and ophiolite emplacement related to subduction of the northern margin of the Tauride-Anatolide continent, central and western Turkey. In: Van Hinsbergen DJJ, Edwards MA, Govers R (eds) Collision and collapse at the Africa-Arabia-Eurasia subduction zone, vol 311. Geological Society London Special Publications, London, pp 9–66

    Google Scholar 

  • Robertson AH, Parlak O, Ustaömer T (2013) Late Palaeozoic-Early Cenozoic tectonic development of Southern Turkey and the easternmost Mediterranean region: evidence from the inter-relations of continental and oceanic units. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 372(1):9–48

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robertson A, Parlak O, Ustaömer T, Taslı K, İnan N, Dumitrica P, Karaoğlan F (2014) Subduction, ophiolite genesis and collision history of Tethys adjacent to the Eurasian continental margin: New evidence from the Eastern Pontides, Turkey. Geodin Acta 26:230–293

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robertson AHF, Parlak O, Dumitrica P (2022) Role of Late Cretaceous volcanic sedimentary melanges, specifically the Aladağ melange, E Turkey, in the rift-drift-subduction-accretion-emplacement history of the Tethyan Inner Tauride ocean. Int Geol Rev 64(8):1139–1190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rojay B, Altıner D, Altıner SÖ, Önen P, James S, Thirlwall MF (2004) Geodynamic significance of the Cretaceous pillow basalts from North Anatolian Ophiolitic Mélange Belt (Central Anatolia, Turkey): geochemical and paleontological constraints. Geodin Acta 17:349–361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rojay B (2013) Tectonic evolution of the Cretaceous Ankara ophiolitic mélange during the Late Cretaceous to pre-Miocene interval in Central Anatolia, Turkey. J Geodyn 65:66–81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sarıfakıoğlu E, Dilek Y, Sevin M (2014) Jurassic-Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia. Turkey Solid Earth 5(1):77

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sarıfakıoğlu E, Dilek Y, Sevin M (2017) New synthesis of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone and the Ankara mélange in northern Anatolia based on new geochemical and geochronological constraints, In: Sorkhabi R (eds) Tectonic evolution, collision, and seismicity of Southwest Asia: In honor of Manuel Berberian’s forty-five years of research contributions. Geological Society of America Special Paper 525:613–675

  • Scholl DW, von Huene R (2007) Crustal recycling at modern subduction zones applied to the past-Issues of growth and preservation of continental basement crust, mantle geochemistry, and supercontinent reconstruction. Geol Soc Am Mem 200:9–32

    Google Scholar 

  • Shervais JW (1982) Ti-V plots and the petrogenesis of modern and ophiolitic lavas. Earth Planet Sci Lett 59(1):101–118

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shervais JW (2001) Birth, death, and resurrection: The life cycle of suprasubduction zone ophiolites. Geochem Geophys Geosyst. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GC000080

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shervais JW, Reagan M, Haugen E, Almeev RR, Pearce JA, Prytulak J, Li H (2019) Magmatic response to subduction initiation: Part 1. Fore-arc basalts of the Izu-Bonin arc from IODP Expedition 352. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 20(1):314–338

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spray JG (1984) Possible causes and consequences of upper mantle decoupling and ophiolite displacement. In: Gass IG, Lippard SJ, Shelton AW (eds) Ophiolites and oceanic lithosphere, vol 13. Geological Society of London Special Publication, London, pp 255–268

    Google Scholar 

  • Stern CR (2011) Subduction erosion: rates, mechanisms, and its role in arc magmatism and the evolution of the continental crust and mantle. Gondwana Res 20(2–3):284–308

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stern RJ, Morris J, Bloomer SH, Hawkins JW Jr (1991) The source of the subduction component in convergent margin magmas: trace element and radiogenic isotope evidence from Eocene boninites Mariana Forearc. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55(5):1467–1481

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stern RJ, Bloomer SH (1992) Subduction zone infancy: examples from the Eocene Izu-Bonin-Mariana and Jurassic California arcs. Geol Soc Am Bull 104:1621–1636

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stern RJ, Reagan M, Ishizuka O, Ohara Y, Whattam S (2012) To understand subduction initiation, study forearc crust: To understand forearc crust, study ophiolites. Lithosphere 4(6):469–483

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sun SS, McDonough WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In: Saunders AD, Norry MJ (eds) From, magmatism in the ocean basins, vol 42. Geological Society London Special Publications, London, pp 313–345

    Google Scholar 

  • Tekeli O (1981) Subduction complex of pre-Jurassic age, northern Anatolia. Turkey Geology 9(2):68–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Topuz G, Göçmengil G, Rolland Y, Çelik ÖF, Zack T, Schmitt AK (2013a) Jurassic accretionary complex and ophiolite from northeast Turkey: No evidence for the Cimmerian continental ribbon. Geology 41:255–258

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Topuz G, Çelik ÖF, Şengör AMC, Altıntaş İE, Zack T, Rolland Y, Barth M (2013b) Jurassic ophiolite formation and emplacement as backstop to a subduction accretion complex in the Northeast Turkey, the Refahiye ophiolite, and relation to Balkan ophiolites. Am J Sci 313:1054–1087

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Topuz G, Okay AI, Schwarz WH, Sunal G, Altherr R, Kylander-Clark AR (2018) A middle Permian ophiolite fragment in Late Triassic greenschist-to blueschist-facies rocks in NW Turkey: An earlier pulse of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation in the Tethyan belt. Lithos 300:121–135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Utsunomiya A, Jahn BM, Okamoto K, Ota T, Shinjoe H (2011) Intra-oceanic island arc origin for Iratsu eclogites of the Sanbagawa belt, central Shikoku, southwest Japan. Chem Geol 280(1–2):97–114

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uysal I, Ersoy EY, Dilek Y, Escayola M, Sarıfakıoğlu E, Saka S, Hirata T (2015) Depletion and refertilization of the Tethyan oceanic upper mantle as revealed by the early Jurassic Refahiye ophiolite, NE Anatolia-Turkey. Gondwana Res 27:594–611

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vannucchi P, Remitti F, Bettelli G (2008) Geological record of fluid flow and seismogenesis along an erosive subducting plate boundary. Nature 451:699–703

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Von Huene R, Scholl DW (1991) Observations at convergent margins concerning sediment subduction, subduction erosion, and the growth of continental crust. Rev Geophys 29(3):279–316

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Von Huene R, Ranero CR, Vannucchi P (2004) Generic model of subduction erosion. Geology 32(10):913–916

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Whattam SA, Stern RJ (2011) The ‘subduction initiation rule’: a key for linking ophiolites, intra-oceanic forearcs, and subduction initiation. Contrib Miner Petrol 162(5):1031–1045

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wakabayashi J, Dilek Y (2000) Spatial and temporal relations between ophiolites and their subophiolitic soles: A test of models of forearc ophiolite genesis. In Dilek Y, Moores EM, Elthon D, Nicolas A Eds Ophiolites and oceanic crust: new insights from field studies and ocean drilling, vol 349. Geological Society of America Special Paper, Boulder, Colorado, USA, pp 53–64

  • Wakabayashi J, Dilek Y (2003) What constitutes ‘emplacement’of an ophiolite?: Mechanisms and relationship to subduction initiation and formation of metamorphic soles. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 218(1):427–447

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wakabayashi J, Ghatak A, Basu AR (2010) Suprasubduction-zone ophiolite generation, emplacement, and initiation of subduction: a perspective from geochemistry, metamorphism, geochronology, and regional geology. Bulletin 122(9–10):1548–1568

    Google Scholar 

  • Whitney DL, Hamilton MA (2004) Timing of high-grade metamorphism in central Turkey and the assembly of Anatolia. J Geol Soc 161:823–828

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yamamoto S, Senshu H, Rino S, Omori S, Maruyama S (2009) Granite subduction: arc subduction, tectonic erosion and sediment subduction. Gondwana Res 15(3–4):443–453

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yılmaz A (1981) Tokat ile Sivas arasındaki bölgede ofiyolitli karışığın iç yapısı ve yerleşme yaşı. Bull Geol Soc Turk 24:31–36

    Google Scholar 

  • Yılmaz A (1983) Main geological features of the area around Tokat (Dumanlı dağı) and Sivas (Çeltekdağı) and setting of ophiolitic mélange. Bull Miner Res Explor 99:1–19

    Google Scholar 

  • Yılmaz A, Yılmaz H (2004) Geology and Structural evolution of the Tokat Massif (Eastern Pontides, Turkey). Turk J Earth Sci 13:231–246

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Ulrich Riller and Timur Ustaömer for editorial handling, and Alastair H. F. Robertson and Bora Rojay for their constructive comments and suggestions, which improved our paper. The authors thank İsmail Emir Altıntaş for assistance during the fieldwork. This study was funded by the scientific and technological research council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK), by a research grant (#112Y123).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mutlu Özkan.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Supplementary Information

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Özkan, M., Çelik, Ö.F., Çörtük, R.M. et al. Early–Middle Jurassic metamorphic and non-metamorphic supra-subduction zone ophiolite fragments in a Late Cretaceous ophiolitic mélange (northern Turkey): implications for long-lived and supra-subduction zone ophiolite formation. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 111, 2391–2408 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-022-02235-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-022-02235-9

Keywords

  • Jurassic
  • Metamorphic sole rocks
  • Ophiolites
  • Subduction erosion
  • Tethyan