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Miocene syn-rift evolution of the North Croatian Basin (Carpathian–Pannonian Region): new constraints from Mts. Kalnik and Požeška gora volcaniclastic record with regional implications

Abstract

Mts. Kalnik and Požeška gora volcaniclastic sequences hold valuable information concerning the Miocene syn-rift evolution of the North Croatian Basin, and the evolution of the Carpathian–Pannonian Region and the Central Paratethys. We present volcanological, high-precision geochronological, and compositional data of volcanic glass to constrain their tephrochronology, magmatic provenance, and timing of the initial Central Paratethys flooding of the North Croatian Basin. Based on CA-ID-TIMS U–Pb zircon ages (18.060 ± 0.023 Ma for Mt. Kalnik and 15.345 ± 0.020 Ma for Mt. Požeška gora) and coeval 40Ar/39Ar sanidine ages (18.14 ± 0.38 Ma and 18.25 ± 0.38 Ma for Mt. Kalnik and 15.34 ± 0.32 Ma and 15.43 ± 0.32 Ma for Mt. Požeška gora), Mt. Kalnik rhyolitic massive ignimbrites and Mt. Požeška gora rhyolitic primary volcaniclastic turbidites are coeval with Carpathian–Pannonian Region Miocene post-collisional silicic volcanism, which was caused by lithospheric thinning of the Pannonian Basin. Their affiliation to Carpathian–Pannonian Region magmatic activity is supported by their subduction-related geochemical signatures. Although Mts. Kalnik and Požeška gora volcaniclastics are coeval with the Bükkalja Volcanic Field Csv-2 rhyolitic ignimbrites, North Alpine Foreland Basin, Styrian Basin, Vienna Basin, and Dinaride Lake System bentonites and volcaniclastic deposits, reliable tephrochronological interpretations based on comparison of volcanic glass geochemical composition are not possible due to a lack of data and/or methodological discrepancies. Our new high-precision geochronology data prove that the initial Middle Miocene (Badenian) marine flooding of parts of the North Croatian Basin occurred at least ~ 0.35 Ma (during the NN4 Zone) before the generally accepted ~ 15 Ma maximum flooding age at the basin scale, calibrating the timing of the onset of the widespread “mid-Langhian” Central Paratethys flooding.

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Availability of data and material

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this article (and its supplementary information files).

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Acknowledgements

The work has been supported in part by Croatian Science Foundation under the project “Miocene syn-rift evolution of the North Croatian Basin (Carpathian–Pannonian Region): a multi-proxy approach, correlation and integration of sedimentary and volcanic record” (PYROSKA, HRZZ UIP-2019-04-7761). Katarína Holcová also acknowledges the support of the project PROGRES Q45 financed by Charles University (Prague). We would like to thank Dr. Andrea Di Capua for his very helpful comments and suggestions that improved the manuscript, as well as Professor Christoph Breitkreuz for editorial work. Additionally, thanks to Croatian Geological Survey Lab team, and Mirjana Miknić for field support.

Funding

The work has been supported in part by Croatian Science Foundation under the project “Miocene syn-rift evolution of the North Croatian Basin (Carpathian–Pannonian Region): a multi-proxy approach, correlation and integration of sedimentary and volcanic record” (PYROSKA, HRZZ UIP-2019-04-7761).

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All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by MB, SK, SG, KK, MB, VB, KH, KW, KB, VH, IM, MH, SS, and US. The first draft of the manuscript was written by MB and all authors commented on versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Mihovil Brlek.

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Brlek, M., Kutterolf, S., Gaynor, S. et al. Miocene syn-rift evolution of the North Croatian Basin (Carpathian–Pannonian Region): new constraints from Mts. Kalnik and Požeška gora volcaniclastic record with regional implications. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 109, 2775–2800 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-020-01927-4

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Keywords

  • Miocene
  • North Croatian Basin volcaniclastic rocks
  • High-precision geochronology
  • Tephrochronology
  • Carpathian–Pannonian region
  • Central Paratethys