Plutons and domes: the consequences of anatectic magma extraction—example from the southeastern French Massif Central

Abstract

Anatectic magmas form plutons or accumulate in the core of anatectic domes. Both scenarios have distinct implications on the behaviour of the continental crust during orogenic evolution from collision to collapse. Considering a stepwise extraction of melt, we simulate the evolution of anatectic melt and of solid residues produced in the crust from collision to collapse using thermodynamic modelling. We also simulate the effect of entrainment of source material (restite-unmixing and peritectic assemblage entrainment) on the compositional range of the resulting magmas. The results are then compared to the compositions of lower crustal xenoliths and of peraluminous granites in both plutons and anatectic dome in the southeastern French Massif Central (SE-FMC). From our calculations, we identify two type of anatectic melts (1) cool-and-wet produced at low-temperature (< 800 °C) which release fluids during crystallisation and (2) hot-and-dry produced at high-temperature (> 750 °C) which only release fluids at the end of crystallisation. When emplaced around 0.4 GPa, cold-and-wet melts are produced by muscovite-dehydration melting reactions; hot-and-dry are produced by biotite-dehydration melting. In the SE-FMC, the Velay dome is cored by the Velay granite, intruded by small bodies of Velay leucogranite and surrounded by plutons made of either two mica leucogranite (MPG) or cordierite-bearing granite (CPG). MPG and Velay leucogranite compositions are best reproduced by cool-and-wet magmas. CPG and Velay granite compositions are best reproduced by hot-and-dry magmas. Melt extraction after biotite dehydration melting leaves residues that are similar in composition to lower-crustal xenoliths. Magmas forming plutons migrate freely toward the upper crust forming plutons with distinct compositions. On the contrary, to form a dome, magmas are retained on the way up. The emplacement and accumulation of magma at deeper level enhances (or trigger) melting due to the addition of heat (from hot-and-dry) and fluids (from cool-and-wet). The accumulation of magma and the in situ melting increases melt fraction and has consequence to weaken the middle crust and leads to the formation of an anatectic dome. We suggest that magmas are retained due to lithological heterogeneities in the crust. In the case of the Velay dome, a large orthogneiss formation similar to the Velay orthogneiss formation may have played that role.

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Acknowledgements

AV acknowledges funding from LabEx VOLTAIRE (ANR-10-LABX-100-01) and the ANR program VARPEG (ANR-15-CE01-0001). JFM was supported by an INSU-PNP grant “Quantification de la durée d’un épisode de fusion partielle en contexte de désépaississement tardi-orogénique” (2016). The authors thank O. Vanderhaeghe and V. Gardien for discussions on the subject and the area; Bruna Carvalho and Roberto Weinberg for constructive comments that helped to improve this manuscript.

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Villaros, A., Laurent, O., Couzinié, S. et al. Plutons and domes: the consequences of anatectic magma extraction—example from the southeastern French Massif Central. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 107, 2819–2842 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-018-1630-x

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Keywords

  • Crustal melting
  • Magma extraction
  • Anatectic dome
  • Peraluminous granite
  • Collapsing orogen
  • French Massif Central