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Crustal melting and recycling: geochronology and sources of Variscan syn-kinematic anatectic granitoids of the Tormes Dome (Central Iberian Zone). A U–Pb LA-ICP-MS study

Abstract

In this study, we report U–Pb Laser Ablation ICP-MS zircon and ID-TIMS monazite ages for peraluminous granitoid plutons (biotite ± muscovite ± cordierite ± sillimanite) in the Tormes Dome, one of the gneiss-cored domes located in the Central Iberian Zone of the Variscan belt of northern Spain. Textural domains in zircon, interpreted to represent the magmatic crystallization of the granitoids (and one monazite fraction in the Ledesma pluton) yielded ages around 320 Ma, in agreement with other geochronological studies in the region. This age is interpreted to date the timing of decompression crustal melting driven by the extensional collapse of the orogenic belt in this domain of the Variscan chain of western Europe. In addition, there are several populations of inherited (xenocrystic) zircon: (1) Carboniferous zircon crystals (ca. 345 Ma) as well as one of the monazite fractions in the coarse-grained facies of the Ledesma pluton that also yielded an age of ca. 343 Ma. (2) Devonian–Silurian zircon xenocrysts with scattered ages between ca. 390 and 432 Ma. (3) Middle Cambrian–Ordovician (ca. 450–511 Ma). (4) Ediacaran–Cryogenian zircon ages (ca. 540–840 Ma). (5) Mesoproterozoic to Archaean zircon (900–2700 Ma). The abundance of Carboniferous-inherited zircon shows that crustal recycling/cannibalization may often happen at a fast pace in orogenic scenarios with only short lapses of quiescence. In our case study, it seems plausible that a “crustal layer” of ca. 340 Ma granitoids/migmatites was recycled, partially or totally, only 15–20 My after its emplacement.

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Acknowledgements

This work has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under the project ODRE III-Oroclines and Delamination: Relations and Effects (CGL2013-46061-P) and the project of DGCYT “Geochemical, tectonic and experimental approach of the crustal recycling processes and the mantle-crust interaction: Genesis and emplacement of the granitoids from the Tormes Dome” (CGL2004-06808-C04-04). JFS acknowledges support from Project CGL2016-76438-P (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness). Assistance by A. Gärtner, U. Linnemann and R. Kraus at the Senkenberg Museum Dresden is greatly appreciated. P. Villar and D. Mellado from Saloro SLU, provided sample BARR. Insightful reviews by L. Solari and C. Quesada are kindly appreciated. This paper is part of UNESCO IGCP Projects 574: Buckling and Bent Orogens, and Continental Ribbons; 597: Amalgamation and breakup of Pangaea: The Type Example of the Supercontinent Cycle; and 648: Supercontinent Cycles and Global Geodynamics.

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López-Moro, F.J., López-Plaza, M., Gutiérrez-Alonso, G. et al. Crustal melting and recycling: geochronology and sources of Variscan syn-kinematic anatectic granitoids of the Tormes Dome (Central Iberian Zone). A U–Pb LA-ICP-MS study. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 107, 985–1004 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-017-1483-8

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Keywords

  • U–Pb geochronology
  • Laser ablation
  • Iberia
  • Variscan
  • Anatectic granitoids