International Journal of Earth Sciences

, Volume 106, Issue 3, pp 939–958 | Cite as

Nature and evolution of lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Ethiopian rift zone: evidence from petrology and geochemistry of mantle xenoliths

  • Melesse Alemayehu
  • Hong-Fu Zhang
  • Patrick Asamoah Sakyi
Original Paper


Mantle xenoliths hosted in Quaternary basaltic lavas from the Dillo and Megado areas of the southern Ethiopian rift are investigated to understand the geochemical composition and associated processes occurring in the lithospheric mantle beneath the region. The xenoliths are comprised of predominantly spinel lherzolite with subordinate harzburgite and clinopyroxenite. Fo content of olivine and Cr# of spinel for peridotites from both localities positively correlate and suggest the occurrence of variable degrees of partial melting and melt extraction. The clinopyroxene from lherzolites is both LREE depleted (La/Sm(N) = 0.11–0.37 × Cl) and LREE enriched (La/Sm(N) = 1.88–15.72 × Cl) with flat HREEs (Dy/Lu(N) = 0.96–1.31 × Cl). All clinopyroxene from the harzburgites and clinopyroxenites exhibits LREE-enriched (La/Sm(N) = 2.92–27.63.1 × Cl and, 0.45 and 1.38 × Cl, respectively) patterns with slight fractionation of HREE. The 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf ratios of clinopyroxene from lherzolite range from 0.51291 to 0.51370 and 0.28289 to 0.28385, respectively. Most of the samples define ages of 900 and 500 Ma on Sm–Nd and Lu–Hf reference isochrons, within the age range of Pan-African crustal formation. The initial Nd and Hf isotopic ratios were calculated at 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 Ga plot away from the trends defined by MORB, DMM and E-DMM which were determined from southern Ethiopian peridotites, thus indicating that the Dillo and Megado xenoliths could have been produced by melt extraction from the asthenosphere during the Pan-African orogenic event. There is no significant difference in 87Sr/86Sr ratios between the depleted and enriched clinopyroxene. This suggests that the melts that caused the enrichment of the clinopyroxene are mainly derived from the depleted asthenospheric mantle from which the xenoliths are extracted. Largely, the mineralogical and isotopic compositions of the xenoliths show heterogeneity of the CLM that could have been produced from various degrees of melt extraction, followed by metasomatism.


Dillo–Megado Mantle xenoliths Depletion Enrichment Sr–Nd–Hf isotopes 



MA highly acknowledges the grant obtained from the Chinese Academy of Sciences for postdoctoral fellowship for developing countries (Grant No. 2014FFBZ003). We would like to appreciate Mr. Qian Mao, Mr. Yu-Guang Ma and Dr. Zhu Bin for their assistance in major element analysis using EMPA. Dr. Yue-Heng Yang and Dr. Yan Xiao are thanked for their assistance in trace element determination using LA-ICP-MS. Dr. Yue-Heng Yang and Mr. Li Yang are greatly appreciated for Rb, Sr, Sm, Nd, Lu and Hf elemental separation in the ultra-clean laboratory and Lu–Hf isotope analyses using MC-ICP-MS. Dr. Zhu-Yin Chu and Miss Wang Xiuli are also appreciated for Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope analysis using TIMS. Prof. Yan-Jie Tang, Prof. Tyrone Rooney and Prof. Bishal Nath Upreti are thanked for giving detailed scientific comments and English correction on an earlier version of this manuscript. Dr. Reitz Meredith and Dr. Greig A. Paterson are also appreciated for English language correction on the on the first and second revised version of this manuscript. The authors also extend their appreciation to Geological Survey of Ethiopia for providing materials related to the study area. Our appreciation also goes to Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, School of Earth Science and Mining Engineering, University of Gondar and Arba Minch University Earth Science department for fieldwork material support. The fast careful detail editorial handling and comments from Chief Editor Prof. Wolf-Christian Dullo and Associate Editor Prof. Victoria Pease are highly appreciated. We gratefully acknowledge the two reviewers, Dr. Katie Smart and Dr. Bernard Bonin, for their numerous constructive suggestions and comments that greatly improved this paper. This research work has also benefited from the financial support from the National Science Foundation of China to Melesse Alemayehu (Grant No. 41450110429) and Hong-Fu Zhang (Grant No. 91414301).

Supplementary material

531_2016_1342_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 kb)
531_2016_1342_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (46 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 46 kb)


  1. Abdelsalam M, Stern R (1996) Sutures and shear zones in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. J Afr Earth Sci 23:289–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alemayehu M (2010) Nature and evolution of northwestern and southern Ethiopian sub-continental lithospheric mantle: implication from petrology, geochemistry, and geochronology of mantle xenoliths. PhD thesis Okayama Univ, JapanGoogle Scholar
  3. Alemayehu M, Tak K, Ota T, Ryoji T, Moriguti T, Nakamura E (2010) Sr–Nd–Hf–Pb isotopic characteristics of Northwestern and southern Ethiopian lithospheric mantle. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:A697Google Scholar
  4. Alemayehu M, Zhang HF, Tang Y, Xiao Y, Abraham S, Haji M (2015) Geochemical evolution of sub-continental lithospheric mantle of Ethiopian plateau and rift zone. Goldschmidt conference 2015 Abstract # 2098Google Scholar
  5. Alemayehu M, Zhang HF, Zhu B, Fentie B, Abraham A, Haji M (2016a) Petrological constraints on evolution of continental lithospheric mantle beneath the northwestern Ethiopian plateau: insight from mantle xenoliths from the Gundeweyn area, East Gojam, Ethiopia. Lithos 240–243:295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alemayehu A, Zhang HF, Zhu B, Tang Y, Meten M, Getahun E, Haji M (2016b) Multistage evolution of sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath Ethiopian plateau and rift. Goldschmidt conference 2016 Abstract acceptedGoogle Scholar
  7. Alemayehu M, Hong-Fu, Zhang HF, Aulbach S (2016c) Evaluation of mantle processes in an extensional regime: Insight from in situ O and Sr isotope systematics of mantle xenoliths from Ethiopia. J Geol acceptedGoogle Scholar
  8. Amundsen HEF, Griffin WL, O'Reilly SY (1987) The lower crust and upper mantle beneath northwestern Spitsbergen: evidence from xenoliths and geophysics. Tectonophysics 139:169–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arai S (1994) Characterization of spinel peridotite by olivine-spinel compositional relationships: review and interpretation. Chem Geol 113:191–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ayalew D, Yirgu G, Ketefo E, Barbey P, Ludden J (2003) Intrusive equivalents of food volcanics: evidence from petrology of xenoliths in Quaternary Tana basanites Ethiopia. Ethiop J Sci 26:93–102Google Scholar
  11. Ayalew D, Arndt N, Bastien F, Yirgu G, Kieffer B (2009) A new mantle xenolith locality from Simien shield volcano, NW Ethiopia. Geol Mag 146:144–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baker J, Thirlwall M, Menzies M (1996) Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic and trace element evidence for crustal contamination of plume derived flood basalts; Oligocene flood volcanism in western Yemen. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60:2559–2581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beccaluva L, Bianchini G, Natali C, Siena F (2009) Continental flood basalts and mantle plumes: a case study of the northern Ethiopian plateau. J Petrol 50:1377–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beccaluva L, Bianchini G, Ellam RM, Natali C, Santato A, Siena F, Stuart FM (2011) Peridotite xenoliths from Ethiopia: inferences on mantle processes from plume to rift settings. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 478:77–104Google Scholar
  15. Bedini RM, Bodinier JL (1999) Distribution of incompatible trace elements between the constituents of spinel peridotite xenoliths: ICP-MS data from the East African Rift. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:3883–3900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bedini RM, Bodinier JL, Dautria JM, Morten L (1997) Evolution of LILE enriched small melt fractions in the lithospheric mantle: a case study from the East African Rift. Earth Planet Sci Lett 153:67–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bianchini G, Julia G, Bryce JG, Blichert-Toft J, Beccaluva L, Natali C (2014) Mantle dynamics and secular variations beneath the East African Rift: insights from peridotite xenoliths (Mega, Ethiopia). Chem Geol 386:49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boyd F (1998) The origin of cratonic peridotites: a major-element approach. Int Geol Rev 40:755–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brey GP, Kohler T (1990) Geothermobarometry in four-phase lherzolites II; new thermo barometers and practical assessment of existing thermobrometers. J Petrol 31:1353–1378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carpenter RI, Edgar AD, Thibault Y (2002) Origin of spongy textures in clinopyroxene and spinel from mantle xenoliths, Hessian Depression, Germany. Contrib Mineral Petrol 74:149–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen L, Liu Y, Hu Z, Gao S, Zong K, Chen H (2011) Accurate determinations of fifty four major and trace elements in carbonate by LA-ICP-MS using normalization strategy of bulk components as 100%. Chem Geol 284:283–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coltorti M, Bonadiman C, Hinton RW, Siena F, Upton BGJ (1999) Carbonatite metasomatism of the oceanic upper mantle: evidence from clinopyroxenes and glasses in ultramafic xenoliths of Grande Comore, Indian Ocean. J Petrol 40:133–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Conticelli S, Sintoni MF, Abebe T, Mazzarini F, Manetti P (1999) Petrology and geochemistry of ultramafic xenoliths and host lavas from Ethiopian volcanic province; an insight into the upper mantle under Eastern Africa. Acta Vulcanol 11:143–151Google Scholar
  24. Courtillot V, Davaille A, Besse J, Stock J (2003) Three distinct types of hot spots in the Earth’s mantle. Earth Planet Sci Lett 205:295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davidson A (1983) The Omo river project: reconnaissance geology and geochemistry of parts of Ilubabor, Kefa, Gem-Gofa, and Sidamo, Ethiopia. Ethiop Inst Geol Surv Bull 3:89Google Scholar
  26. Davidson A, Rex DC (1980) Age of volcanism and rifting in South-Western Ethiopia. Nature 283:657–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dawson JB (1984) Contrasting types of upper mantle metasomatism? In: Kornprobst J (ed) Kimberlites II, vol 11. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 519–548Google Scholar
  28. Dawson JB, Powell DG, Reid AM (1970) Ultrabasic xenoliths and lava from the Lashaine Volcano, northern Tanzania. J Petrol 11:519–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ebinger CJ, Yemane T, Weldable G, Agonising JL, Walter RC (1993) Late eocene-recent volcanism and faulting in the southern Main Ethiopian Rift. J Geol Soc Lond 50:99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fan WM, Zhang HF, Baker J, Jarvis KE, Mason PRD, Menzies MA (2001) On and off the North China craton: where is the Archean keel? J Petrol 41:933–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ferrando S, Frezzotti ML, Neumann ER, Astis DG, Peccerillo A, Dereje A, Gezahegn Y, Teklewold A (2008) Composition and thermal structure of the lithosphere beneath the Ethiopian plateau: evidence from mantle xenoliths in basanites, Injibara, Lake Tana Province. Mineral Petrol 93:47–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Frey F, Martin PM (1978) Ultramafic inclusions from San Carlos, Arizona: petrologic and geochemical data bearing on their petrogenesis. Earth Planet Sci Lett 38:129–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Frezzotti ML, Andersen T, Neumann ER, Simonsen SL (2002) Carbonatite melt-CO2 fluid inclusions in mantle xenoliths from Tenerife, Canary Islands: a story of trapping, immiscibility and fluid–rock interaction in the upper mantle. Lithos 64:77–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Frezzotti ML, Ferrando S, Peccerillo A, Petrelli M, Tecce F, Perucchi A (2010) Chlorine-rich metasomatic H2O-CO2 fluids in amphibole-bearing peridotites from Injibara (Lake Tana region, Ethiopian plateau): nature and evolution of volatiles in the mantle of a region of continental flood basalts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:3023–3039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Furman T, Kaleta K, Bryce J, Hanan BB (2006) Tertiary mafic lavas of Turkana, Kenya: constraints on East African plume structure and the occurrence of high-micro volcanism in Africa. J Petrol 47:1221–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Goldstein S, O’Nions R, Hamilton P (1984) A Sm–Nd isotopic study of atmospheric dusts and particulates from major river systems. Earth Planet Sci Lett 70:221–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Griffin WL, O’Reilly SY, Ryan CG (1998) The composition and origin of sub-continental lithospheric mantle. In: Fei Y, Berka CM, Mysen BO (eds) Mantle petrology: field observations and high-pressure experimentation: a tribute to Francis R (Joe) Boyd, vol 6. Geochem Soc Spec Publ, pp 13–45Google Scholar
  38. Handler MR, Bennett VC, Carlson RW (2005) Nd, Sr and Os isotope systematics in young, fertile spinel peridotite xenoliths from northern Queensland, Australia: a unique view of depleted MORB mantle? Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:5747–5763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harte B (1977) Rock nomenclature with particular relation to deformation and recrystallization textures in olivine-bearing xenoliths. J Geol 85:279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hauri EH, Shimizu N, Dieu JJ, Hart SR (1993) Evidence for hot spot-related carbonatite metasomatism in oceanic upper mantle. Nature 365:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Henjes-Kunst F, Altherr R, Baumann A (1990) Evolution and composition of the lithospheric mantle underneath the western Arabian Peninsula: constraints from Sr–Nd isotope systematics of mantle xenoliths. Contrib Mineral Petrol 105:406–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ionov DA, Harmer RE (2002) Trace element distribution in calcite-dolomite carbonatites from Spitskop: inuences for differentiation of carbonatite magmas and the origin of carbonates in mantle xenoliths. Earth Planet Sci Lett 198:495–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ionov DA, Hofmann AW (1994) Metasomatism induced melting in mantle xenoliths from Mongolia. J Petrol 35:753–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jaques AL, Green DH (1980) Anhydrous melting peridotite at 10–15 kb pressure and the genesis of tholeiitic basalts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 73:287–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnson K, Dick H, Shimizu N (1990) Melting in the oceanic upper mantle: an ion microprobe study of diopsides in abyssal peridotites. J Geophys Res 95:266–2678Google Scholar
  46. Kaeser B, Olker B, Kalt A, Altherr R, Pettke T (2009) Pyroxenite xenoliths from Marsabit (northern Kenya): evidence for different magmatic events in the lithospheric mantle and interaction between peridotite and pyroxenite. Contrib Mineral Petrol 157:453–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kampunzu AB, Mohr P (1991) Magmatic evolution and petrogenesis in the East African Rift system. In: Kampunzu AB, Lubala RT (eds) Magmatism in extensional structural settings. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 85–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kelemen PB, Dick JB (1995) Focused melt flow and localized deformation in the upper mantle; juxtaposition of replacive dunite and ductile shear zones in the Josephine peridotite, SW Oregon. J Geophys Res 100:423–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kieffer B, Arndt N, Lapierre H, Bastien F, Bosch D, Pecher A, Yirgu G, Ayalew D, Weis D, Jerram DA, Keller F, Meugniot C (2004) Flood and shield basalts from Ethiopia: magmas from the African superswell. J Petrol 45:793–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Le Fevre B, Pin C (2001) An extraction chromatography method for Hf separation prior to isotopic analysis using multiple collection ICP-mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 73:2453–2460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lee C-T, Rudnick RL (1999) Compositionally stratified cratonic lithosphere: petrology and geochemistry of peridotite xenoliths from the Labait volcano, Tanzania. In: Gurney JJ, Gurney JL, Pascoe MD, Richardson SR (eds) The PH Nixon Volume. Proceedings 7th international Kimberlite conference, Red Roof Design Cape Town, pp 503–521Google Scholar
  52. Lee C, Rudnick R, McDonough W, Horn I (2000) Petrologic and geochemical investigation of carbonates in peridotite xenoliths from northeastern Tanzania. Contrib Mineral Petrol 139:470–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Li CF, Chen FK, Li XH (2007) Precise isotopic measurements of sub-nanogram Nd of standard reference material by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using the NdO+ technique. Int J Mass Spectrom 266:34–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Li CF, Li XH, Li QL, Guoa JH, Li XH, Yanga YH (2012) Rapid and precise determination of Sr and Nd isotopic ratios in geological samples from the same filament loading by thermal ionization mass spectrometry employing a single-step separation scheme. Anal Chim Acta 727:54–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Liu YS, Hu ZC, Gao S, Günther D, Xu J, Gao CG, Chen HH (2008) In-situ analysis of major and trace elements of anhydrous minerals by LA-ICP-MS without applying an internal standard. Chem Geol 257:34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lorand JP, Reisberg L, Bedini RM, Horan MF, Brandon AD, Neal CR (2003) Platinum-group elements and melt percolation processes in Sidamo spinel peridotite xenoliths, Ethiopia, East African Rift. Chem Geol 196:57–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. MacGregor ID (2015a) Empirical geothermometers and geothermobarometers for spinel peridotite phase assemblages. Int Geol Rev 57(15):1940–1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. MacGregor ID (2015–2016) Corrigendum. Int Geol Rev doi: 10.1080/00206814.2015.1129752
  59. McDonough WF, Sun SS (1995) The composition of the Earth. Chem Geol 120:223–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McGuire AV (1988) Petrology of mantle xenoliths from Harrat al Kishb: the mantle beneath Western Saudi Arabia. J Petrol 29:73–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Menzies MA (1983) Mantle ultramafic xenoliths in alkaline magmas: evidence for mantle heterogeneity modified by magmatic activity. In: Hawkesworth CJ, Norry MJ (eds) Continental basalts and mantle xenoliths, vol 1. Shiva Publishing, Nantwich Cheshire, pp 92–110Google Scholar
  62. Mercier JCC, Nicolas A (1975) Textures and fabrics of upper mantle peridotites as illustrated by basalt xenoliths. J Petrol 16:454–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Merla G, Abbate E, Azzaroli A, Bruni P, Canuti P, Fazzuoli M, Sagri M, Tacconi P (1973) A geological map of Ethiopia and Somalia (1973) 1:2,000,000 and comment with a map of major landforms. National Council of Research, RomaGoogle Scholar
  64. Meshesha D, Shinjo R, Matsumura R, Chekol T (2011) Metasomatised lithospheric mantle beneath Turkana depression in southern Ethiopia (the East Africa Rift): geochemical and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic characteristics. Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:889–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Morimoto N (1988) Nomenclature of pyroxenes. Am Mineral 73:1123–1133Google Scholar
  66. Nasir S (1992) The lithosphere beneath the northwestern part of the Arabian Plate Jordan. Evidence from xenoliths and geophysics. Tectonophysics 201:357–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nasir S, Rollinson H (2009) The nature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the Arabian shield: mantle xenoliths from southern Syria. Gondwana Res 172(3–4):323–333Google Scholar
  68. Nasir S, Stern R (2012) Lithospheric petrology of the eastern Arabian plate: constraints from Al-Ashkhara (Oman) xenoliths. Lithos 32–33:98–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nasir S, Al-Sayigh A, Alharthy A, Al-Lazki A (2006) Geochemistry and petrology of Tertiary volcanic rocks and related ultramafic xenoliths from the central and Eastern Oman Mountains. Lithos 90:249–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nimis P, Taylor WR (2000) Single-clinopyroxene thermobarometry for garnet peridotites. Part I. Calibration and testing of a Cr-in-Cpx barometer and an enstatite-in-Cpx thermometer. Contrib Miner Petrol 139:541–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Norman MD (1998) Melting and metasomatism in the continental lithosphere: laser ablation ICPMS analysis of minerals in spinel lherzolites from Eastern Australia. Contrib Mineral Petrol 130:240–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nowell GM, Kempton PD, Noble SR, Fitton JG, Saunders AD, Mahoney JJ, Taylor RN (1998) High precision Hf isotope measurements of MORB and OIB by thermal ionization mass spectrometry: insights into the depleted mantle. Chem Geol 149:211–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. O’Nions RK, Carter SR, Evensen NM, Hamilton PJ (1979) Geochemical and cosmochemical applications of Nd isotope analysis. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 7:11–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Orlando A, Abebe T, Manetti P, Santo AP, Corti G (2006) Petrology of mantle xenoliths from Megado and Dillo, Kenya Rift, southern Ethiopia. Ofioliti 31:71–87Google Scholar
  75. Ottonello G, Ernst WG, Joron JL (1984) Rare Earth element and 3rd transition element geochemistry of peridotitic rocks: i. peridotite from western Alps. J Petrol 25:343–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pearce NJG, Perkins WT, Westgate JA, Gorton MP, Jackson SE, Neal CR, Chenery SP (1997) A compilation of new and published major and trace element data for NIST SRM 610 and NIST SRM 612 glass reference materials. Geostand Geoanal Res 21(1):115–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pearson DG (1999) The age of continental roots. Lithos 48:171–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Piccardo GB, Müntener O, Zanetti A, Pettke T (2004) Ophiolitic peridotites of the Alpine-Apennine system: mantle processes and geodynamic relevance. Int Geol Rev 46:1119–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Piccardo GB, Zanetti A, Müntener O (2007) Melt/peridotite interaction in the southern Lanzo peridotite: field, textural and geochemical evidence. Lithos 94:181–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pollack H, Chapman D (1977) On the regional variation of heat flow, geotherms, and lithospheric thickness. Tectonophysics 38(3–4):279–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Powell W, O’Reilly S (2007) Metasomatism and sulfide mobility in lithospheric mantle beneath eastern Australia: implications for mantle Re–Os chronology. Lithos 94:132–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Raczek I, Jochum KP, Hofmann AW (2003) Neodymium and Strontium isotope data for USGS reference materials BCR-1, BCR-2, BHVO-1, BHVO-2, AGV-1, AGV-2, GSP-1, GSP-2 and eight MPI-DING reference glasses. Geostand Newsl 27:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rampone E, Romairone A, Hofmann AW (2004) Contrasting bulk and mineral chemistry in depleted peridotites: evidence for reactive porous flow. Earth Planet Sci Lett 218:491–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Reisberg L, Lorand JB, Bedini RM (2004) Reliability of Os model ages in pervasively metasomatized continental lithosphere: a case study of Sidamo spinel peridotite xenoliths (East African Rift, Ethiopia). Chem Geol 208:119–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rogers S, Dautria JM, Coulon C, Pik R, Yirgu G, Michard A, Legros P, Ayalew D (1999) An insight on the nature, composition and evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the North-western Ethiopian plateau; the ultrabasic xenoliths from the Tana Lake Province. Acta Vulcanol 11:161–168Google Scholar
  86. Rooney O, Furman T, Yirgu G, Ayalew D (2005) Structure of Ethiopian lithosphere: xenoliths evidence in the Main Ethiopian Rift. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:3889–3910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rudnick RL, McDonough WL, Chappell BW (1993) Carbonatite metasomatism in the northern Tanzanian mantle: petrographic and geochemical characteristics. Earth Planet Sci Lett 114:463–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rudnick RL, Gao S, Ling WL, Liu YS, McDonough WF (2004) Petrology and geochemistry of spinel peridotite xenoliths from Hannuoba and Qixia, North China Craton. Lithos 77:609–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sachtleben TH, Seck HA (1981) Chemical control of Al-solubility in orthopyroxene and its implications on pyroxene geothermometry. Contrib Mineral Petrol 78:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shaw CJ (1997) Origin of sulfide blebs in variably metasomatized mantle xenoliths, Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic field, Germany. Can Mineral 35:1453–1463Google Scholar
  91. Shaw JE, Baker JA, Kent AJR, Ibrahim KM, Menzies MA (2007) The geochemistry of the Arabian lithospheric mantle—source for intraplate volcanism? J Petrol 48:1495–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Shinjo R, Chekol T, Meshesha D, Tatsumi Y, Itaya T (2010) Geochemistry and geochronology of the mafic lavas from the southeastern Ethiopian rift (the East African Rift system): assessment of models on magma sources, plume-lithosphere interaction and plume evolution. Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:209–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stern M, Abdelsalam M (1998) Formation of juvenile continental crust in the Arabian-Nubian shield: evidence from granitic rocks of the Nakasib suture, NE Sudan. Geol Rundsch 87:150–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stern M, Goldstein S (1996) From plume head to continental lithosphere in the Arabian–Nubian shield. Nature 382:773–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stern RJ, Johnson P (2010) Continental lithosphere of the Arabian plate: a geologic, petrologic, and geophysical synthesis. Earth Sci Rev 101:29–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stern R, Kröner A (1993) Late Precambrian crustal evolution in NE Sudan: isotopic and geochronologic constraints. J Geol 101:555–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Streckeisen A (1976) To each plutonic rock its proper name. Earth Sci Rev 12:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Su BX, Zhang HF, Sakyi PA, Yang YH, Ying JF, Tang YJ, Qin KZ, Xiao Y, Zhao XM, Mao Q, Ma YG (2011) The origin of spongy texture of mantle xenolith minerals from the Western Qinling, Central China. Contrib Mineral Petrol 161:465–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sun SS, McDonough WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematic of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle compositions and processes. Geol Soc Spec Publ 42:313–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tanaka R, Nakamura E (2002) Geochemical evolution of Koolau Volcano, Hawaii. In: Takahashi E, Lipman PW, Garcia MO, Naka J, Aramaki S (eds) Hawaiian volcanoes: deep underwater perspective, geophysics monogr, vol 128., AGU geophys monographWashington, DC, pp 311–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tang YJ, Zhang HF, Ying JF, Zhang J, Liu XM (2008) Re-fertilization of ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the central North China Craton: evidence from petrology and geochemistry of peridotite xenoliths. Lithos 101(3–4):435–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Teklay M, Scherer EE, Mezger K, Danyushevsky L (2010) Geochemical characteristics and Sr–Nd–Hf isotope compositions of mantle xenoliths and host basalts from Assab, Eritrea: implications for the composition and thermal structure of the lithosphere beneath the Afar depression. Contrib Mineral Petrol 159:731–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tommasini S, Manetti P, Innocenti I, Sintoni MF, Conticelli S, Abebe T (2005) The Ethiopian subcontinental mantle domains: geochemical evidence from Cenozoic massif lavas. Mineral Petrol 84:259–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vervoort JD, Blichert-Toft J (1999) Evolution of the depleted mantle: Hf isotope evidence from juvenile rocks through time. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:533–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vervoort J, Patchett P, Blichert-Toft J, Albarede F (1999) Relationships between Lu–Hf and Sm–Nd isotopic systems in the global sedimentary system. Earth Planet Sci Lett 168:79–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wasserburg G, Jacousen S, DePaolo D, McCulloch M, Wen T (1981) Precise determination of ratios, Sm and Nd isotopic abundances in standard solutions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 45:2311–2323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wells PRA (1977) Pyroxene thermometry in simple and complex systems. Contrib Mineral Petrol 62:129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Windley B, Whitehouse M, Ba-Bttat M (1996) Early precambrian gneiss terranes and Pan-African island arc in Yemen: crustal accretion of the Eastern Arabian shield. Lithos 24:131–134Google Scholar
  109. Witt-Eickschen E, Seck HA (1991) Solubility of Ca and Al in orthopyroxene from spinel peridotite: an improved version of an empirical geothermometer. Contrib Mineral Petrol 106:431–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yang YH, Zhang HF, Chu ZY, Lie-wen X, Wu FY (2010) Combined chemical separation of Lu, Hf, Rb, Sr, Sm and Nd from a single rock digest and precise and accurate isotope determinations of Lu–Hf, Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope systems using multi-collector ICP-MS and TIMS. Int J Mass Spectrom 290:120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Yaxley GM, Crawford AJ, Green DH (1991) Evidence for carbonatite metasomatism in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Western Victoria, Australia. Earth Planet Sci Lett 107(2):305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Yemane T, WoldeGebriel G, Tesfaye S, Berhe SM, Durary S, Ebinger CJ, Kelley S (1999) Temporal and geochemical characteristics of Tertiary volcanic rocks and tectonic history in the southern Main Ethiopian Rift and adjacent volcanic fields. Acta Vulcanol 11:99–119Google Scholar
  113. Zhang HF, Goldstein SL, Zhou XH, Sun M, Zheng JP, Cai Y (2008) Evolution of subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath Eastern China: Re–Os isotopic evidence from mantle xenoliths in Paleozoic kimberlites and Mesozoic basalts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 155:271–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zhang HF, Deloule E, Tang YJ, Ying JF (2010) Melt/rock interaction in remains of re-fertilized Archean lithospheric mantle in Jiaodong Peninsula, North China Craton: Li isotopic evidence. Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:261–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhang HF, Sun YL, Tang YJ, Xiao Y, Zhang H, Zhao XM, Santosh M, Menzies MA (2012) Melt-peridotite interaction in the Pre-cambrian mantle beneath the Western North China Craton: petrology, geochemistry and Sr, Nd and Re isotopes. Lithos 149:100–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zheng JP, O’Reilly SY, Griffin WL, Lu FX, Zhang M, Pearson NJ (2001) Relics of refractory mantle beneath the eastern North China block: significance for lithosphere evolution. Lithos 57:43–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zheng JP, Griffin WL, O’Reilly SY, Yu CM, Zhang HF, Pearson N, Zhang M (2007) Mechanism and timing of lithospheric modification and replacement beneath the eastern North China Craton: Peridotitic xenoliths from the 100 Ma Fuxin basalts and a regional synthesis. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:5203–5225CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric EvolutionInstitute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Earth Science, School of Earth Science and Mining EngineeringAddis Ababa Science and Technology UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Department of GeologyNorthwest UniversityXi’anChina
  4. 4.Department of Earth ScienceUniversity of GhanaLegon-AccraGhana

Personalised recommendations