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Tensor pooling-driven instance segmentation framework for baggage threat recognition

Abstract

Automated systems designed for screening contraband items from the X-ray imagery are still facing difficulties with high clutter, concealment, and extreme occlusion. In this paper, we addressed this challenge using a novel multi-scale contour instance segmentation framework that effectively identifies the cluttered contraband data within the baggage X-ray scans. Unlike standard models that employ region-based or keypoint-based techniques to generate multiple boxes around objects, we propose to derive proposals according to the hierarchy of the regions defined by the contours. The proposed framework is rigorously validated on three public datasets, dubbed GDXray, SIXray, and OPIXray, where it outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by achieving the mean average precision score of 0.9779, 0.9614, and 0.8396, respectively. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first contour instance segmentation framework that leverages multi-scale information to recognize cluttered and concealed contraband data from the colored and grayscale security X-ray imagery.

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Availability of data and materials

All the datasets that have been used in this article are publicly available.

Notes

  1. The source code of the proposed framework along with its complete documentation is available at https://github.com/taimurhassan/tensorpooling.

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Funding

This work is supported by a research fund from ADEK (Grant Number: AARE19-156) and Khalifa University (Grant Number: CIRA-2019-047).

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

TH formulated the idea, wrote the manuscript, and performed the experiments. SA improved the initial design of the framework and contributed to manuscript writing. MB co-supervised the whole research and reviewed the manuscript and experiments. SK reviewed the manuscript and experiments and improved the manuscript writing. NW supervised the whole research, contributed to manuscript writing, and reviewed the experimentation.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Taimur Hassan.

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Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are relevant to this article.

Financial and non-financial interests

All the authors declare that they have no financial or non-financial interests to disclose for this article.

Employment

The authors conducted this research during their employment in the following institutes: (1) T. Hassan (Khalifa University, UAE), (2) S. Akçay (Durham University, UK), (3) M. Bennamoun (The University of Western Australia, Australia), (4) S. Khan (Mohamed bin Zayed University of Artificial Intelligence, UAE), and (5) N. Werghi (Khalifa University, UAE).

Ethical approval

All the authors declare that no prior ethical approval was required from their institutes to conduct this research.

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All the authors declare that no prior consent was needed to disseminate this article as there were no human (or animal) participants involved in this research.

Code availability

The source code of the proposed framework is released publicly on GitHub1.

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Hassan, T., Akçay, S., Bennamoun, M. et al. Tensor pooling-driven instance segmentation framework for baggage threat recognition. Neural Comput & Applic 34, 1239–1250 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00521-021-06411-x

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Keywords

  • Aviation security
  • Structure tensors
  • Instance segmentation
  • Baggage X-ray scans