The pathophysiology of cancer-related fatigue: current controversies
Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating cancer symptoms, and is associated with impaired quality of life. The exact pathophysiology of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is poorly understood, but in any individual, it is likely multifactorial and involves inter-related cytokine, muscular, neurotransmitter, and neuroendocrine changes. Underlying CRF mechanisms proposed include central and peripheral hypotheses. Central mechanisms include hypotheses about cytokine dysregulation, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis disruption, circadian rhythm disruption, serotonin, and vagal afferent nerve function while peripheral mechanisms include hypotheses about adenosine triphosphate and muscle contractile properties. Currently, these hypotheses are largely based on evidence from other conditions in which fatigue is characteristic. The purpose of this article is to provide a narrative review of the literature and present the current controversies in the pathophysiology of CRF, particularly in relation to central and peripheral hypotheses for CRF. An understanding of pathophysiology may facilitate direct and simple therapeutic interventions for those with cancer.
KeywordsCancer-related fatigue Pathophysiology Proinflammatory cytokines Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis Neuromuscular abnormalities Serotonin
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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