Supportive Care in Cancer

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 461–469 | Cite as

Comparison of group vs self-directed music interventions to reduce chemotherapy-related distress and cognitive appraisal: an exploratory study

  • Shu-Chuan Chen
  • Cheng-Chen Chou
  • Hsiu-Ju Chang
  • Mei-Feng LinEmail author
Original Article



The purpose of this study was to determine effects of group music intervention and self-directed music intervention on anxiety, depression, and cognitive appraisal among women with breast cancer.


A quasi-experimental design randomly assigned 60 women undergoing chemotherapy to 3 groups: group music intervention, self-directed music intervention, or a control group. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale were administered before, after the 8-week interventions, and at 3-month follow-up.


Of the 52 women completing the study, results indicated that group music intervention had a significant (p < .01) immediate effect to decrease helplessness/hopelessness and anxious preoccupation and significant effects for reducing anxiety, depression, helplessness/hopelessness, and cognitive avoidance compared to the other two groups at 3-month follow-up.


Group music intervention can be considered an effective supportive care in alleviating the chemotherapy-related distress and enhancing cognition modification of women with breast cancer. Further research is needed to determine the role of cognitive appraisal in the illness trajectory.


Breast cancer Group music intervention Anxiety Depression Cognitive appraisal Chemotherapy-related distress 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. We have full control of all primary data and agree to allow the journal to review our data.


Funding support from the Minister of Science Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. (NSC 102-2410-H-006-013).

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shu-Chuan Chen
    • 1
  • Cheng-Chen Chou
    • 2
  • Hsiu-Ju Chang
    • 2
  • Mei-Feng Lin
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Nursing and MidwiferyGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Nursing, College of NursingTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiRepublic of China
  3. 3.Department of Nursing, College of MedicineNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainan CityRepublic of China

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