Interventional options for the management of refractory cancer pain—what is the evidence?

Abstract

Purpose

Pain is the most common symptom in cancer patients. Standard pain treatment according to the WHO three-step analgesic ladder provides effective pain management in approximately 70–90 % of cancer patients. Refractory pain is defined as not responding to “standard” treatments. Interventional analgesic techniques can be used in an attempt to control refractory pain in patients in whom conventional analgesic strategies fail to provide effective pain relief or are intolerable due to severe adverse effects. This systematic review aims to provide the latest evidence on interventional refractory pain management in cancer patients.

Methods

Systematic literature search in Cochrane, EMBASE and PubMed including reviews and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised controlled trials in the absence of reviews.

Results

Neuraxial analgesia may play a role in refractory cancer pain management. Paravertebral blocks decrease the incidence of persistent post-surgical pain after breast cancer. Coeliac plexus blocks improve pain scores in refractory pancreatic cancer pain for up to 4 weeks after the intervention with fewer burdensome side effects as compared to opioids. Cordotomy has mainly been studied in mesothelioma, and the case series suggest possible benefit for pain at the expense of a relatively high risk of side effects.

Conclusions

Overall, very few RCTs have been conducted on interventional pain techniques. In reality, it is very difficult to undertake large controlled trials for a number of reasons. Therefore, today’s best evidence for practice may be from large case series of comparable patients with careful response and toxicity evaluation and follow-up.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    van den Beuken-van Everdingen MH, de Rijke JM, Kessels AG, Schouten HC, van Kleef M, Patijn J (2007) Prevalence of pain in patients with cancer: a systematic review of the past 40 years. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol ESMO 18(9):1437–1449. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdm056

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Organization WH (1996) Cancer pain relief and palliative care: a report of a WHO Expert Committee, 3rd edn. World Health Organization, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Zech DF, Grond S, Lynch J, Hertel D, Lehmann KA (1995) Validation of World Health Organization guidelines for cancer pain relief: a 10-year prospective study. Pain 63(1):65–76

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Vargas-Schaffer G (2010) Is the WHO analgesic ladder still valid? Twenty-four years of experience. Can Fam Physician 56(6):514–517, + e202-e205

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Miguel R (2000) Interventional treatment of cancer pain: the fourth step in the world health organization analgesic ladder? Cancer Control 7(2):149–156

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Chambers WA (2008) Nerve blocks in palliative care. Br J Anaesth 101(1):95–100. doi:10.1093/bja/aen105

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Afsharimani B, Kindl K, Good P, Hardy J (2015) Pharmacological options for the management of refractory cancer pain-what is the evidence? Support Care Cancer Off J Multinatl Assoc Support Care Cancer 23(5):1473–1481. doi:10.1007/s00520-015-2678-9

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Kassamali RH, Ganeshan A, Hoey ET, Crowe PM, Douis H, Henderson J (2011) Pain management in spinal metastases: the role of percutaneous vertebral augmentation. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol ESMO 22(4):782–786. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdq605

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Buchbinder R, Golmohammadi K, Johnston RV, Owen RJ, Homik J, Jones A, Dhillon SS, Kallmes DF, Lambert RG (2015) Percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD006349. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006349.pub2

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ploeg WT, Veldhuizen AG, The B, Sietsma MS (2006) Percutaneous vertebroplasty as a treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a systematic review. Eur Spine J 15(12):1749–1758

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Bhargava A, Trivedi D, Kalva L, Tumas M, Hooks M, Speth J (2009) Management of cancer-related vertebral compression fracture: comparison of treatment options: a literature meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol 27(15):e20529

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Chew C, Craig L, Edwards R, Moss J, O’Dwyer PJ (2011) Safety and efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty in malignancy: a systematic review (Provisional abstract). Clin Radiol 66(1):63–72

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Schroeder JE, Ecker E, Skelly AC, Kaplan L (2011) Cement augmentation in spinal tumors: a systematic review comparing vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty (provisional abstract). Evid Based Spine-Care J 2(4):35–43

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Khan YN, Raza SS, Khan EA (2006) Spinal cord stimulation in visceral pathologies. Pain Med 7(SUPPL 1):S121–S125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Bouza C, Lapez-Cuadrado T, Cediel P, Saz-Parkinson Z, Amate JM (2009) Balloon kyphoplasty in malignant spinal fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Palliat Care 8

  16. 16.

    Montagu A, Speirs A, Baldock J, Corbett J, Gosney M (2012) A review of vertebroplasty for osteoporotic and malignant vertebral compression fractures. Age Ageing 41(4):450–455. doi:10.1093/ageing/afs024

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    McGirt MJ, Parker SL, Wolinsky JP, Witham TF, Bydon A, Gokaslan ZL (2009) Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures: an evidenced-based review of the literature. Spine J Off J N Am Spine Soc 9(6):501–508. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2009.01.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Taylor RS, Fritzell P, Taylor RJ (2007) Balloon kyphoplasty in the management of vertebral compression fractures: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis (provisional abstract). Eur Spine J 16(8):1085–1100

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Mercadante S (1998) Controversies over spinal treatment in advanced cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 6(6):495–502

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Jones RL, Rawlins PK (2005) The diagnosis of intrathecal infusion pump system failure. Pain Physician 8(3):291–296

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Devulder J, Ghys L, Dhondt W, Rolly G (1994) Spinal analgesia in terminal care: risk versus benefit. J Pain Symptom Manag 9(2):75–81

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Holmfred A, Vikerfors T, Berggren L, Gupta A (2006) Intrathecal catheters with subcutaneous port systems in patients with severe cancer-related pain managed out of hospital: the risk of infection. J Pain Symptom Manag 31(6):568–572

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Malheiro L, Gomes A, Barbosa P, Santos L, Sarmento A (2015) Infectious complications of intrathecal drug administration systems for spasticity and chronic pain: 145 patients from a tertiary care center. Neuromodulation J Int Neuromodulation Soc 18(5):421–426

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Deer TR, Caraway DL, Kim CK, Dempsey CD, Stewart CD, McNeil KF (2002) Clinical experience with intrathecal bupivacaine in combination with opioid for the treatment of chronic pain related to failed back surgery syndrome and metastatic cancer pain of the spine. Spine J Off J N Am Spine Soc 2(4):274–278

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Deer TR, Serafini M, Buchser E, Ferrante FM, Hassenbusch SJ (2002) Intrathecal bupivacaine for chronic pain: a review of current knowledge. Neuromodulation J Int Neuromodulation Soc 5(4):196–207. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1403.2002.02030.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Hitt JM, de Leon-Casasola OA (2011) Complications of intrathecal drug delivery systems. Tech Reg Anesth Pain Manag 15:162–166

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Dahm P, Nitescu P, Appelgren L, Curelaru I (1998) Efficacy and technical complications of long-term continuous intraspinal infusions of opioid and/or bupivacaine in refractory nonmalignant pain: a comparison between the epidural and the intrathecal approach with externalized or implanted catheters and infusion pumps. Clin J Pain 14(1):4–16

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Deer TR, Prager J, Levy R, Rathmell J, Buchser E, Burton A, Caraway D, Cousins M, De Andres J, Diwan S, Erdek M, Grigsby E, Huntoon M, Jacobs MS, Kim P, Kumar K, Leong M, Liem L, McDowell GC 2nd, Panchal S, Rauck R, Saulino M, Sitzman BT, Staats P, Stanton-Hicks M, Stearns L, Wallace M, Willis KD, Witt W, Yaksh T, Mekhail N (2012) Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference 2012: recommendations for the management of pain by intrathecal (intraspinal) drug delivery: report of an interdisciplinary expert panel. Neuromodulation J Int Neuromodulation Soc 15(5):436–464. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1403.2012.00476.x, discussion 464–436

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Prager J, Deer T, Levy R, Bruel B, Buchser E, Caraway D, Cousins M, Jacobs M, McGlothlen G, Rauck R, Staats P, Stearns L (2014) Best practices for intrathecal drug delivery for pain. Neuromodulation J Int Neuromodulation Soc 17(4):354–372

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Dupoiron D, Bore F, Lefebvre-Kuntz D, Brenet O, Debourmont S, Dixmerias F, Buisset N, Lebrec N, Monnin D (2012) Ziconotide adverse events in patients with cancer pain: a multicenter observational study of a slow titration, multidrug protocol. Pain Physician 15(5):395–403

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Webster LR, Fisher R, Charapata S, Wallace MS (2009) Long-term intrathecal ziconotide for chronic pain: an open-label study. J Pain Symptom Manag 37(3):363–372. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2008.02.016

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Deer TR, Prager J, Levy R, Rathmell J, Buchser E, Burton A, Caraway D, Cousins M, De Andrés J, Diwan S, Erdek M, Grigsby E, Huntoon M, Jacobs MS, Kim P, Kumar K, Leong M, Liem L, Ii GCM, Panchal S, Rauck R, Saulino M, Todd Sitzman B, Staats P, Stanton-Hicks M, Stearns L, Wallace M, Dean Willis K, Witt W, Yaksh T, Mekhail N (2012) Polyanalgesic consensus conference 2012: recommendations for the management of pain by intrathecal (intraspinal) drug delivery: report of an interdisciplinary expert panel. Neuromodulation 15(5):436–464

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Ripamonti CI, Santini D, Maranzano E, Berti M, Roila F, Group EGW (2012) Management of cancer pain: ESMO clinical practice guidelines. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol ESMO 23(Suppl 7):vii139–vii154. doi:10.1093/annonc/mds233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Myers J, Chan V, Jarvis V, Walker-Dilks C (2010) Intraspinal techniques for pain management in cancer patients: a systematic review. Support Care Cancer Off J Multinatl Assoc Support Care Cancer 18(2):137–149. doi:10.1007/s00520-009-0784-2

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Manchikanti L, Falco FJ, Singh V, Benyamin RM, Racz GB, Helm S 2nd, Caraway DL, Calodney AK, Snook LT, Smith HS, Gupta S, Ward SP, Grider JS, Hirsch JA (2013) An update of comprehensive evidence-based guidelines for interventional techniques in chronic spinal pain. Part I: introduction and general considerations. Pain Physician 16(2 Suppl):S1–S48

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Kurita GP, Kaasa S, Sjogren P (2011) Spinal opioids in adult patients with cancer pain: a systematic review: a European Palliative Care Research Collaborative (EPCRC) opioid guidelines project. Palliat Med 25(5):560–577. doi:10.1177/0269216310386279

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Bruera E, Hui D (2010) Spinal analgesia: where is the evidence? Support Care Cancer Off J Multinatl Assoc Support Care Cancer 18(10):1237. doi:10.1007/s00520-010-0881-2, author reply 1239–1240

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Raffaeli W, Andruccioli J, Righetti D, Caminiti A, Balestri M (2006) Intraspinal therapy for the treatment of chronic pain: a review of the literature between 1990 and 2005 and suggested protocol for its rational and safe use. Neuromodulation J Int Neuromodulation Soc 9(4):290–308. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1403.2006.00071.x

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Anderson VC, Burchiel KJ, Cooke B (2003) A prospective, randomized trial of intrathecal injection vs. epidural infusion in the selection of patients for continuous intrathecal opioid therapy. Neuromodulation 6(3):142–152. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1403.2003.03023.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Burton AW, Rajagopal A, Shah HN, Mendoza T, Cleeland C, Hassenbusch ISJ, Arens JF (2004) Epidural and intrathecal analgesia is effective in treating refractory cancer pain. Pain Med 5(3):239–247

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Smith TJ, Coyne PJ (2005) Implantable drug delivery systems (IDDS) after failure of comprehensive medical management (CMM) can palliate symptoms in the most refractory cancer pain patients. J Palliat Med 8(4):736–742

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Smith TJ, Staats PS, Deer T, Stearns LJ, Rauck RL, Boortz-Marx RL, Buchser E, Catala E, Bryce DA, Coyne PJ, Pool GE (2002) Randomized clinical trial of an implantable drug delivery system compared with comprehensive medical management for refractory cancer pain: impact on pain, drug-related toxicity, and survival. J Clin Oncol 20(19):4040–4049

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Rauck RL, Cherry D, Boyer MF, Kosek P, Dunn J, Alo K (2003) Long-term intrathecal opioid therapy with a patient-activated, implanted delivery system for the treatment of refractory cancer pain. J Pain Off J Am Pain Soc 4(8):441–447

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Hayek SM, Deer TR, Pope JE, Panchal SJ, Patel VB (2011) Intrathecal therapy for cancer and non-cancer pain. Pain Physician 14(3):219–248

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Ver Donck A, Vranken JH, Puylaert M, Hayek S, Mekhail N, Van Zundert J (2014) Intrathecal drug administration in chronic pain syndromes. Pain Pract 14(5):461–476

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Staats PS, Yearwood T, Charapata SG, Presley RW, Wallace MS, Byas-Smith M, Fisher R, Bryce DA, Mangieri EA, Luther RR, Mayo M, McGuire D, Ellis D (2004) Intrathecal ziconotide in the treatment of refractory pain in patients with cancer or AIDS: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291(1):63–70. doi:10.1001/jama.291.1.63

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Rauck RL, Wallace MS, Leong MS, Minehart M, Webster LR, Charapata SG, Abraham JE, Buffington DE, Ellis D, Kartzinel R, Ziconotide 301 Study G (2006) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of intrathecal ziconotide in adults with severe chronic pain. J Pain Symptom Manag 31(5):393–406. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2005.10.003

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Wallace MS, Kosek PS, Staats P, Fisher R, Schultz DM, Leong M (2008) Phase II, open-label, multicenter study of combined intrathecal morphine and ziconotide: addition of ziconotide in patients receiving intrathecal morphine for severe chronic pain. Pain Med 9(3):271–281. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00355.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Webster LR, Fakata KL, Charapata S, Fisher R, MineHart M (2008) Open-label, multicenter study of combined intrathecal morphine and ziconotide: addition of morphine in patients receiving ziconotide for severe chronic pain. Pain Med 9(3):282–290. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00356.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Goudas LC, Carr DB, Filos KS (1998) The spinal clonidine opioid analgesic interaction: from laboratorz animals to the postoperative ward—a literature review of preclinical and clinical evidence. Analgesia 3:277–290

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Yaksh TL, Malmberg AB (1994) Interaction of spinal modulatory receptor systems. In: Fields HL, Liebeskinid JC (eds) Pharmacological approaches to the treatment of chronic pain. IASP Press, Seattle, pp 151–171

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Eisenach JC, DuPen S, Dubois M, Miguel R, Allin D (1995) Epidural clonidine analgesia for intractable cancer pain. Pain 61(3):391–399

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Rockemann MG, Seeling W, Brinkmann A, Goertz AW, Hauber N, Junge J, Georgieff M (1995) Analgesic and hemodynamic effects of epidural clonidine, clonidine/morphine, and morphine after pancreatic surgery—a double-blind study. Anesth Analg 80(5):869–874

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Sjoberg M, Appelgren L, Einarsson S, Hultman E, Linder LE, Nitescu P, Curelaru I (1991) Long-term intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine in ‘refractory’ cancer pain. I. Results from the first series of 52 patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 35(1):30–43

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Sjoberg M, Nitescu P, Appelgren L, Curelaru I (1994) Long-term intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine in patients with refractory cancer pain: results from a morphine: bupivacaine dose regimen of 0.5:4.75 mg/ml. Anesthesiology 80(2):284–297

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Van Dongen RTM, Crul BJP, Van Egmond J (1999) Intrathecal coadministration of bupivacaine diminishes morphine dose progression during long-term intrathecal infusion in cancer patients. Clin J Pain 15(3):166–172

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Lauretti GR, Gomes JMA, Reis MP, Pereira NL (1999) Low doses of epidural ketamine or neostigmine, but not midazolam, improve morphine analgesia in epidural terminal cancer pain therapy. J Clin Anesth 11(8):663–668

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Yang CY, Wong CS, Chang JY, Ho ST (1996) Intrathecal ketamine reduces morphine requirements in patients with terminal cancer pain. Can J Anaesth 43(4):379–383

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Ballantyne JC, Carwood C, Gupta A, Bennett MI, Simpson KH, Dhandapani K, Lynch L, Baranidharan G (2013) WITHDRAWN: comparative efficacy of epidural, subarachnoid, and intracerebroventricular opioids in patients with pain due to cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10:D005178

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Scott NA, Guo B, Barton PM, Gerwin RD (2009) Trigger point injections for chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review. Pain Med 10(1):54–69. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00526.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Andreae MH, Andreae DA (2012) Local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia for preventing chronic pain after surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Online) 10:CD007105

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Richman JM, Liu SS, Courpas G, Wong R, Rowlingson AJ, McGready J, Cohen SR, Wu CL (2006) Does continuous peripheral nerve block provide superior pain control to opioids? A meta-analysis. Anesth Analg 102(1):248–257

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Fischer HBJ, Peters TM, Fleming IM, Else TA (1996) Peripheral nerve catheterization in the management of terminal cancer pain. Reg Anesth 21(5):482–485

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Casati A, Vinciguerra F, Scarioni M, Cappelleri G, Aldegheri G, Manzoni P, Fraschini G, Chelly JE (2003) Lidocaine versus ropivacaine for continuous interscalene brachial plexus block after open shoulder surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 47(3):355–360

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Picard PR, Tramer MR, McQuay HJ, Andrew Moore R (1997) Analgesic efficacy of peripheral opioids (all except intra-articular): a qualitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Pain 72(3):309–318

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Ilfeld BM (2011) Continuous peripheral nerve blocks: a review of the published evidence. Anesth Analg 113(4):904–925. doi:10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182285e01

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Koyyalagunta D, Burton AW (2010) The role of chemical neurolysis in cancer pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep 14(4):261–267. doi:10.1007/s11916-010-0123-9

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Raslan AM, Cetas JS, McCartney S, Burchiel KJ (2011) Destructive procedures for control of cancer pain: the case for cordotomy: a review. J Neurosurg 114(1):155–170

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    France BD, Lewis RA, Sharma ML, Poolman M (2014) Cordotomy in mesothelioma-related pain: a systematic review. BMJ Support Palliat Care 4(1):19–29. doi:10.1136/bmjspcare-2013-000508

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Grahm AL, Andren-Sandberg A (1997) Prospective evaluation of pain in exocrine pancreatic cancer. Digestion 58(6):542–549

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Bapat AA, Hostetter G, Von Hoff DD, Han H (2011) Perineural invasion and associated pain in pancreatic cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 11(10):695–707

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Bradley IEL, Bem J (2003) Nerve blocks and neuroablative surgery for chronic pancreatitis. World J Surg 27(11):1241–1248

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    McCartney CJL, Chambers WA (1998) Coeliac plexus block. Curr Anaesth Crit Care 9(6):318–324

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Fugere F, Lewis G (1993) Coeliac plexus block for chronic pain syndromes. Can J Anaesth 40(10):954–963

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Zhong W, Yu Z, Zeng JX, Lin Y, Yu T, Min XH, Yuan YH, Chen QK (2014) Celiac plexus block for treatment of pain associated with pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis. Pain Pract 14(1):43–51. doi:10.1111/papr.12083

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Nagels W, Pease N, Bekkering G, Cools F, Dobbels P (2013) Celiac plexus neurolysis for abdominal cancer pain: a systematic review. Pain Med 14(8):1140–1163. doi:10.1111/pme.12176

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Arcidiacono PG, Calori G, Carrara S, McNicol ED, Testoni PA (2011) Celiac plexus block for pancreatic cancer pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Online) 3:CD007519

    Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Puli SR, Reddy JBK, Bechtold ML, Antillon MR, Brugge WR (2009) EUS-guided celiac plexus neurolysis for pain due to chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer pain: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Dig Dis Sci 54(11):2330–2337

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Kaplan R, Schiff-Keren B, Alt E (1995) Aortic dissection as a complication of celiac plexus block. Anesthesiology 83(3):632–635

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Davies DD (1993) Incidence of major complications of neurolytic coeliac plexus block. J R Soc Med 86(5):264–266

    PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Huang L, Tao F, Wang Z, Wan H, Qu P, Zheng H (2014) Combined neurolytic block of celiac and superior hypogastric plexuses for incapacitating upper abdominal cancer pain. J BUON 19(3):826–830

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Tsigaridas N, Naka K, Tsapogas P, Pelechas E, Damigos D (2015) Spinal cord stimulation in refractory angina. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Acta Cardiol 70(2):233–243

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Ubbink DT, Vermeulen H (2013) Spinal cord stimulation for non-reconstructable chronic critical leg ischaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Online) 2:CD004001

    Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Klomp HM, Steyerberg EW, Habbema JDF, van Urk H (2009) What is the evidence on efficacy of spinal cord stimulation in (subgroups of) patients with critical limb ischemia? Ann Vasc Surg 23(3):355–363

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Taylor RS, Buyten JPV, Buchser E (2006) Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome: a systematic review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness literature and assessment of prognostic factors. Eur J Pain 10(2):91–101

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Simpson EL, Duenas A, Holmes MW, Papaioannou D, Chilcott J (2009) Spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain of neuropathic or ischaemic origin: systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 13(17):iii–72

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Kunnumpurath S, Srinivasagopalan R, Vadivelu N (2009) Spinal cord stimulation: principles of past, present and future practice: a review. J Clin Monit Comput 23(5):333–339. doi:10.1007/s10877-009-9201-0

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Lihua P, Su M, Zejun Z, Ke W, Bennett MI (2013) Spinal cord stimulation for cancer-related pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD009389. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009389.pub2

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Janet Hardy.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Funding

PVB travel expenses and living costs are supported by the “Commission de la relève et des stages de perfectionnement à l’étranger” of the University Hospitals of Geneva.

Disclosures

JH sits on the medical advisory boards of Mundipharma Pty Ltd and Menarini Australia Pty Ltd. She has contributed to the opioid educational modules of Mundipharma Pty Ltd.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Vayne-Bossert, P., Afsharimani, B., Good, P. et al. Interventional options for the management of refractory cancer pain—what is the evidence?. Support Care Cancer 24, 1429–1438 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-015-3047-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Refractory pain
  • Cancer
  • Interventional techniques
  • Pain management procedures