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Supportive Care in Cancer

, Volume 21, Issue 12, pp 3327–3336 | Cite as

Assessing suffering in advanced cancer patients using Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self-Measure (PRISM), preliminary validation of the Spanish version in a Latin American population

  • Alicia KrikorianEmail author
  • Joaquín T. Limonero
  • John J. Vargas
  • Carolina Palacio
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to adapt the Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self-Measure (PRISM), a practical, nonverbal method with strong psychometric properties, to Spanish and to explore its criterion validity in advanced cancer and palliative care (PC).

Methods

Of the consecutive advanced cancer patients attending a palliative care consultation, 209 were invited to participate. To examine criterion validity, correlations were calculated between the PRISM, the Detection of Emotional Distress scale (DED), the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), the Structured Interview of Symptoms and Concerns (SISC), and the suffering visual analogue scale (VAS).

Results

Ninety-eight patients fulfilled inclusion criteria (mean age, 60 years; SD, 14.25; 57 % female). The most frequent types of cancer were lung, breast, and colorectal. Average time since diagnosis was 30 months (2.5 years). PRISM significantly correlated with the Suffering VAS, the DED, and the SISC. It also showed significant correlations with psychosocial factors such as emotional distress, anxiety, loss of control, and perceived coping and spiritual distress items such as loss of dignity and hopelessness, but not with items examining physical symptoms.

Conclusions

The PRISM is a valid measure of suffering in advanced cancer patients. Its Spanish version fits adequately with current definitions and conceptualizations of suffering and may be used in PC settings. Further analysis of other psychometric properties in Spanish-speaking settings is recommended.

Keywords

Suffering Assessment Palliative care Validation studies Cancer Measurement 

Notes

Acknowledgments

A. Krikorian thanks Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana for their financial support. All authors thank T. Alvarez, N. Acosta, and the Instituto de Cancerología of Clínica Las Américas for their invaluable help while conducting the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alicia Krikorian
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joaquín T. Limonero
    • 2
  • John J. Vargas
    • 1
    • 3
  • Carolina Palacio
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Pain and Palliative Care Group, School of Health SciencesUniversidad Pontificia BolivarianaMedellínColombia
  2. 2.Research Group on Stress and Health (GIES), Faculty of PsychologyUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Clínica Las AméricasInstituto de CancerologíaMedellínColombia

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