Skip to main content

Medical Ethics in the 70 Years after the Nuremberg Code, 1947 to the Present

References

  1. 1.

    Singer E, Druml C. Ethics in clinical research. In: Müller M, editor. Clinical pharmacology: current topics and case studies. 2nd ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Czech H, Weindling P, editors. Österreichische Ärzte und Ärztinnen im Nationalsozialismus. Wien: Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes; 2017.

  3. 3.

    Medawar J, Pyke D. Hitler’s gift. Scientists who fled Nazi Germany. London: Piatkus Publishers; 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Müller M. Inauguration speech as rector of the Medical University of Vienna. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2016;128(1–2):2–4.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Schütz W. The medical faculty of the university of Vienna 60 years following Austria’s annexation. Perspect Biol Med. 2000;43(3):389–96.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Druml W. The Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift from 1938 to 1945. On the 60th anniversary of its reappearance in 1946. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1996;108(13):381–4.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Hildebrandt S. How the Pernkopf controversy facilitated a historical and ethical analysis of the anatomical sciences in Austria and Germany: a recommendation for the continued use of the Pernkopf atlas. Clin Anat. 2006;19(2):91–100.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Angetter DC. Anatomical science at University of Vienna 1938–45. Senate Project of the University of Vienna. Lancet. 2000;355(9213):1454–7.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Polak J. After the Holocaust the bells still ring. Jerusalem: Urim publications; 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Polak J. Vienna Protocol for when Jewish or possibly-Jewish human remains are discovered. Paper presented at a symposium at Yad Vashem. Jerusalem; 2017. Published in this volume.

  11. 11.

    Hildebrandt S, Seidelman WE. Where do they come from? A call for complete transparency regarding the origin of human tissues in research. ESMO Open. 2017;2:e201. https://doi.org/10.1136/esmoopen-2017-000201 .

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Ladimar I, Newman R. Clinical investigation in medicine: legal, medical and moral aspects. Law-Medicine Research Institute Boston University, 116 “The Nuremberg Code”. 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    The National Archives (TNA), London: WO 39/470.

  14. 14.

    Weindling P. John Thompson – psychiatrist in the shadow of the holocaust. Rochester: Rochester University Press; 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    TNA: FO 371/57641, War Criminal Auschwitz, Dr. Klein. TNA: WO 309/484, Leo Gries statement on Klein and Rutenol, 15 Nov 1945.

  16. 16.

    TNA: WO 309/468, John Thompson to War Crimes Branch, Judge Advocate, 29 Nov 1945.

  17. 17.

    Weindling P. Nazi medicine and the Nuremberg trials. Basingstoke: Palgrave; 2004.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Gaw A. Reality and revisionism: new evidence for Andrew C Ivy’s claim to authorship of the Nuremberg Code. J R Soc Med. 2014;107(4):138–43. Wellcome Library PP/MHP/C5 Ivy to Pappworth 6 April 1966.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Roelcke V. The use and abuse of medical research ethics: the German Richtlinien/guidelines for human subject research as an instrument for the protection of research subjects – and of medical science, ca. 1931–1961/64. In: Weindling P, editor. From clinic to concentration camp: reassessing Nazi medical and racial research, 1933–1945. Abingdon, New York: Routledge; 2017, pp. 33–56.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    JAMA (Journal of American Medical Association) Jan 11 1947;133:133–5.

  21. 21.

    Weindling P. “Unser eigener ‘österreichischer Weg’”: Die Meerwasser-Trinkexperimente in Dachau 1944. In: Czech H, Weindling P, editors. Österreichische Ärzte und Ärztinnen im Nationalsozialismus. Wien: Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes; 2017. pp. 133–77.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Weindling P. The origins of informed consent: the International Scientific Commission on Medical War Crimes, and the Nuremberg Code. Bull Hist Med. 2001;75:37–71. Cited from: University of Wyoming Ivy Papers, Ivy to Ladimar, 23 March 1964.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Archives de France BB/33/260, folder 4c Special Release no. 104, 23 January 1947.

  24. 24.

    Archives de France BB/35/268, documentation relative aux expériences médicales.

  25. 25.

    Archives de France BB/35/260.

  26. 26.

    NMT Trial Transcripts p 11302 for 17 July 1947 cf http://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu/transcripts/1-transcript-for-nmt-1-medical-case?seq=11450&q=+type:transcripts . Accessed 24 May 2018

  27. 27.

    Alexander L. Ethics of human experimentation. Psychiatr J Univ Ott. 1977;1(1–2):40–6. Alexander Papers, Durham NC, box 1, file 9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Archives de France BB/35/260, Alexander to McHaney 23 November 1946

  29. 29.

    Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office; 1949. vol. 2, pp. 181–3.

  30. 30.

    Mitscherlich A, Mielke F. Wissenschaft ohne Menschlichkeit. Medizinische und eugenische Irrwege unter Diktatur, Bürokratie und Krieg. Heidelberg: Verlag Lambert Schneider; 1949.

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Bayle F. Croix gammée contre caducée. Les expériences humaines en Allemagne pendant la deuxième guerre mondiale. Neustadt: Imprimerie Nationale; 1950.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Taylor T. In: Mitscherlich A, Mielke F, Doctors of Infamy. The Story of Nazi Medical Crimes. New York: Schuman; 1949. p. xxiii-xxv.

  33. 33.

    Perley S, Fluss S, Bankowski Z, Simon F. The Nuremberg Code: an international overview. In: Annas G, Grodin M, editors. The Nazi doctors and the Nuremberg Code. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1994. pp. 149–73.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    WHO Archives Geneva 400/1/1 World Medical Association resolution ‘Crimes de Guerre’, 17–20 September 1947.

  35. 35.

    http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/achre/report.html [accessed 16 April 2018]

  36. 36.

    Freund F. Der Dachauer Mauthausenprozess. Jahrb Dokumentationsarch Österr Widerstandes. 2001:35–66.

  37. 37.

    Schwanninger F. Die “Sonderbehandlung 14 f 13” in den Konzentrationslagern Mauthausen und Gusen. Probleme und Perspektiven der Forschung. KZ-Gedenkstätte Mauthausen – Mauthausen Memorial Jahrb. 2011:55–67.

  38. 38.

    Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office; 1949. Vol. 1, “The Medical Case”.

  39. 39.

    Tschofenig J. 1946. http://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu .

  40. 40.

    Documentation Centre of the Austrian Resistance (DÖW), 22848.

  41. 41.

    Anonymous, ‘Selbstmord Professor Eppingers’, in: Neues Österreich, 27 September 1946, 2

  42. 42.

    Czech H. Beyond Spiegelgrund and Berkatit: human experimentation and coerced research at the Vienna School of Medicine, 1939 to 1945. In: Weindling P, editor. From clinic to concentration camp: Reassessing Nazi medical and racial research, 1933–1945. Abingdon, New York: Routledge; 2017. pp. 138–62.

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Czech H. Nazi “Euthanasia” crimes in World War II Austria. Holocaust Hist Mem. 2012;5:51–73.

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Garscha W. Euthanasie-Prozesse seit 1945 in Österreich und Deutschland. Gerichtsakten als Quelle zur Geschichte der NS-Euthanasie und zum Umgang der Nachkriegsgesellschaft mit Tätern und Opfern. In: Horn S, Malina P, editors. Medizin im Nationalsozialismus: Wege der Aufarbeitung. Wiener Gespräche zur Sozialgeschichte der Medizin. Wien: Pressestelle und Verlag der Österreichischen Ärztekammer; 2002. pp. 46–58.

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Kepplinger B, Marckhgott G, Reese H, editors. Tötungsanstalt Hartheim. Linz: Oberösterreichisches Landesarchiv; 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Klee E. Was sie taten – was sie wurden. Ärzte, Juristen und andere Beteiligte am Kranken- oder Judenmord. Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer; 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Friedlander H. The origins of Nazi genocide. From euthanasia to the final solution. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press; 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Czech H. Jenseits von Hartheim. Dezentrale Krankenmorde in Österreich während der NS-Zeit. In: Arbeitskreis zur Erforschung der nationalsozialistischen Euthanasie und Zwangssterilisation, editor. NS-Euthanasie in der “Ostmark.” Fachtagung vom 17. bis 19. April 2009 im Lern- und Gedenkort Schloss Hartheim. Berichte des Arbeitskreises 8. Münster: Klemm&Oelschläger; 2012. pp. 37–60.

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Vg Graz 18 Vr 907/45 (Senat Klagenfurt), verdict against Dr. Niedermoser et al., 4 Apr 1946 (copy in Documentation Centre of the Austrian Resistance, DÖW 20320).

  50. 50.

    Stromberger H. Die Ärzte, die Schwestern, die SS und der Tod. Die Region Kärnten und das produzierte Sterben in der NS-Periode. Klagenfurt, Celovec: Drava; 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Fürstauer D. Organisierter Anstaltsmord. In: Freidl W, editor. NS-Psychiatrie in Klagenfurt. Wien: facultas; 2016. pp. 110–65.

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Fürstauer D, Lang M. “Zu Tode gepflegt” – Die dezentralen Anstaltsmorde. In: Freidl W, editor. NS-Psychiatrie in Klagenfurt. Wien: facultas; 2016. pp. 183–233.

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Czech H. Von der “Aktion T4” zur “dezentralen Euthanasie”. Die niederösterreichischen Heil- und Pflegeanstalten Gugging, Mauer-Öhling und Ybbs. In: Jahrbuch des Dokumentationsarchivs des österreichischen Widerstandes. 2016. pp. 219–66.

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Czech H. From “Action T4” to “decentralized euthanasia” in Lower Austria: the psychiatric hospitals at Gugging, Mauer-Öhling and Ybbs. 2016. http://www.memorialgugging.at . Accessed 16 Apr 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Gazdag G, Ungvari G, Czech H. Mass killing under the guise of ECT: the darkest chapter in the history of biological psychiatry. Hist Psychiatry. 2017:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957154X17724037

  56. 56.

    Neugebauer W. Die Klinik “Am Spiegelgrund” 1940–1945. Eine "Kinderfachabteilung" im Rahmen der NS-“Euthanasie”. In: Studien zur Wiener Geschichte. Jahrbuch des Vereins für die Geschichte der Stadt Wien. 1996. pp. 289–305.

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Dahl M. Endstation Spiegelgrund. Die Tötung behinderter Kinder während des Nationalsozialismus am Beispiel einer Kinderfachabteilung in Wien. Wien: Erasmus; 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Czech H. Selektion und Kontrolle. Der “Spiegelgrund” als zentrale Institution der Wiener Jugendfürsorge zwischen 1940 und 1945. In: Gabriel E, Neugebauer W, editors. Von der Zwangssterilisierung zur Ermordung. Zur Geschichte der NS-Euthanasie in Wien Teil II. Wien, Köln, Weimar: Böhlau; 2002. pp. 165–87.

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Czech H. Forschen ohne Skrupel. Die wissenschaftliche Verwertung von Opfern der NS-Psychiatriemorde in Wien. In: Gabriel E, Neugebauer W, editors. Von der Zwangssterilisierung zur Ermordung. Zur Geschichte der NS-Euthanasie in Wien Teil II. Wien, Köln, Weimar: Böhlau; 2002. pp. 143–63.

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Hirschinger F. “Zur Ausmerzung freigegeben:” Halle und die Landesheilanstalt Altscherbitz 1933–1945. Köln, Weimar: Böhlau; 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Weinberger RJ. Fertility experiments in Auschwitz-Birkenau: the perpetrators and their victims. Saarbruecken: Suedwestdeutscher Verlag für Hochschulschriften; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Hessisches Hauptstaatsarchiv Wiesbaden (HHStA) 631 a, Collection Horst Schumann Trial.

  63. 63.

    Ausgemustert. Der Spiegel. 1972; 51:58–60.

  64. 64.

    Raim E. Justiz zwischen Diktatur und Demokratie. Wiederaufbau und Ahndung von NS-Verbrechen in Westdeutschland 1945–1949. Oldernbourg: De Gruyter; 2013.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Eichmüller A. Keine Generalamnestie: Die strafrechtliche Verfolgung von NS-Verbrechen in der frühen Bundesrepublik. München: Oldenburg; 2012.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Pendas D. Retroactive law and proactive justice: debating crimes against humanity in Germany, 1945–1950. Cent Eur Hist. 2010;43(3):428–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Official Gazette of the Control Council for Germany. 30 November 1945.

  68. 68.

    Frei N, Golb J. Adenauer’s Germany and the Nazi past: the politics of amnesty and integration. New York: Colombia University Press; 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Müller, I. Hitler’s Justice. The courts of the Third Reich. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1991.

  70. 70.

    Jarausch K. The unfree professions: German lawyers, teachers, and engineers 1900–1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Wolff-Powęska A. Memory as burden and liberation: Germans and their Nazi past 1945–2010. Frankfurt: Peter Lang; 2015.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Buscher F. “I know I also share the guilt”: A retrospective of the West German parliament’s 1965 debate on the statue of limitations for murder. Yad Vashem Bull. 2006;34:258.

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Wittmann R. The wheels of justice turn slowly: the pretrial investigation of the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial 1963–65. Cent Eur Hist. 2002;35:349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Wittmann R. Beyond justice: the Auschwitz trial. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Grodin MA. Historical origins of the Nuremberg Code. In: Michalczyk JJ, editor. Medicine, ethics and the Third Reich: historical and contemporary issues. Kansas: Sheed & Ward; 1994. pp. 169–94.

    Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Nagel T. Moral Luck. In: Statman D, editor. Moral luck. Albany: State University of New York Press; 1993. pp. 57–71.

    Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Offer M. White coats inside the ghetto: Jewish medicine in Poland during the Holocaust. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem; 2015. (In Hebrew). [English edition in press].

    Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Statman D. Moral dilemmas. Amsterdam: Rodopi; 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Roland CG. Courage under siege: starvation, disease and death in the Warsaw Ghetto. New York: Oxford University Press; 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Apfelbaum E, editor. Choroba Głodowa: Badania kliniczne nad głodem wykonane w getcie warszawskim z roku 1942. Warsaw: American Joint Distribution Committee; 1946.

    Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Apfelbaum E, editor. Maladie de famine: recherches cliniques sur la famine executees dans la Ghetto de Varsovie en 1942. Warsaw: American Joint Distribution Committee; 1946.

    Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Roland CG. An underground medical school in the Warsaw Ghetto, 1941–1942. Med Hist. 1989;33:399–419.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Offer M. Studying medicine and medical research in the ghettos: how and why was the underground medical school in the Warsaw Ghetto established? Bishvil Hazikaron. 2016;24:30–8. Hebrew.

    Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Gowans CW, editor. Moral dilemmas. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Sinnott-Armstrong W. Moral dilemmas. Oxford: Blackwell; 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Offer M. Ethical dilemmas in the work of doctors and nurses in the Warsaw Ghetto. Polin: Stud Pol Jewry. 2013;25:467–92.

    Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Offer M. Medicine in the Shavli Ghetto in light of the diary of Dr. Aaron Pik. In: Grodin MA, editor. Jewish medical resistance in the Holocaust. New York, Oxford: Berghahn; 2014. pp. 164–72.

    Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Yitzhak Gruenbaum, ed., Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Diaspora, Warsaw, Vol. 6, pt. 2 (in Hebrew) (Jerusalem and Tel Aviv: Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Diaspora Co., 1959)

  89. 89.

    Israel Medical Association position paper from May 2008. Ethical aspects of mass casualty incidents. Retrieved from: http://www.ima.org.il/MainSite/ViewCategory.aspx?CategoryId-1115 [accessed 16 April 2018]

  90. 90.

    Ringelblum E. Polish–Jewish relations during the Second World War. Evanston: Northwestern University Press; 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Lensky M. A physician inside the Warsaw Ghetto. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Blady-Szwajger A. I remember nothing more. New York: Pantheon; 1991. p. 56.

    Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Negev A, Koren Y. Nisuyim bivnei adam. Yedioth Aharonot newspaper, Shiva Yamim; 25th April 2003; pp. 53–6.

    Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Grodin MA. Historical origins of the Nuremberg Code. In: Annas GJ, Grodin MA, editors. The Nazi doctors and the Nuremberg Code: human rights in human experimentation. Oxford, New York et al.: Oxford University Press; 1992. pp. 121–44.

  95. 95.

    Nadav DS. Medicine and Nazism. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University Magnes Press; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Annas GJ, Grodin MA, editors. The Nazi doctors and the Nuremberg Code. Human rights in human experimentation. New York: Oxford University Press; 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Ferencz BB. Nurnberg trial procedure and the rights of the accused. J Crim Law Criminol. 1948;39(2):144–51.

    Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Heller KJ. The Nuremberg military tribunals and the origins of international criminal law. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2011.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10, Vol 2, “The Medical Case”. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office; 1949. pp. 181–2. [ https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/NT_war-criminals_Vol-II.pdf accessed 16 April 2018]

  100. 100.

    Katz J. The Nuremberg Code and the Nuremberg Trial. A reappraisal. JAMA. 1996;276(20):1662–6.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Katz J. Human sacrifice and human experimentation: reflections at Nuremberg. Yale J Int Law. 1997;22(2):401–18.

    Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Burt R. Death is that man taking names: intersections of American medicine, law, and culture. London: University of California Press; 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Shuster E. The Nuremberg Code: Hippocratic ethics and human rights. Lancet. 1998;351(9107):974–7.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Lenrow DA. The treating physician as researcher: is assuming this dual role a violation of the Nuremberg Code? Temp J Sci Tech Env L. 2006;25(1):15–48.

    Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    United States Constitution Preamble, Amend I, & Amend IV.

  106. 106.

    Annas GJ. Self experimentation and the Nuremberg Code. BMJ. 2010;341:c7103.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    Wiesel E. Foreword. In: Annas GJ, Grodin MA, editors. The Nazi doctors and the Nuremberg Code: human rights in human experimentation. New York: Oxford University Press; 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Shuster E. Fifty years later: the significance of the Nuremberg Code. N Eng J Med. 1997;337(20):1436–40.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    Annas GJ. The legacy of the Nuremberg doctors’ trial to American bioethics and human rights. Minn J Law Sci Technol. 2009;10(1):19–40.

    Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    Glantz LH. The influence of the Nuremberg Code on U.S. statutes and regulations. In: Annas GJ, Grodin MA, editors. The Nazi doctors and the Nuremberg Code: human rights in human experimentation. New York: Oxford University Press; 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Timeline of laws related to the protection of human subjects. Office of History and Stetten Museum: National Institutes of Health (NIH); 2017. https://history.nih.gov/about/timelines_laws_human.html

  112. 112.

    Katz J. Statement by committee member Jay Katz: Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE). 1995. https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu/achre/final/jay_katz.html . Accessed 30 May 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    Annas GJ. Informed consent to human experimentation. In: Glantz LH, Katz BF, editors. The subject’s dilemma. Cambridge: Ballinger Pub; 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Annas GJ. The Nuremberg Code in U.S. courts: ethics versus expediency. In: Annas GJ, Grodin MA, editors. The Nazi doctors and the Nuremberg Code. Human rights in human experimentation. New York: Oxford University Press; 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Moreno JD. Reassessing the influence of the Nuremberg Code on American medical ethics. J Contemp Health Law Policy. 1997;13(2):347–60.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    Beecher HK. Ethics and clinical research. N Engl J Med. 1966;274(24):1354–60.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Rothman DJ. Were Tuskegee & Willowbrook ‘studies in nature’? Hastings Cent Rep. 1982;12(2):5–7.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Childress JF. Nuremberg’s legacy: some ethical reflections. Perspect Biol Med. 2000;43(3):347–61. https://doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2000.0015 .

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Clearing the myths of time: Tuskegee revisited. 2005. p. 127. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(05)01286-7.

  120. 120.

    Faden RR, Beauchamp TL. A history and theory of informed consent. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Ericka Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute, Inc. Myron Higgins, a minor, etc., et al. v. Kennedy Krieger Institute, Inc.: Court of Appeals Maryland; 2001.

  122. 122.

    Mastroianni AC, Kahn JP. Risk and responsibility: ethics, Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger, and public health research involving children. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(7):1073–6.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Brown E. The dilemmas of German bioethics. The New Atlantis – A Journal of Technology and Society. Spring 2004, 37–53. http://www.thenewatlantis.com/publications/the-dilemmas-of-german-bioethics . Accessed 30 Aug 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Cohen J, Marcoux I, Bilsen J, et al. Trends in acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in 12 European countries. Eur J Public Health. 2006;16:663–9.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Stourton E. Germany’s eugenics controversy. BBC News World Edition. 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/correspondent/europe/1272125.stm . Accessed 30 Aug 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  126. 126.

    Kipke R. Schiefe-Bahn-Argumente in der Sterbehilfe-Debatte. Z Med Ethik. 2008;54:135–46.

    Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    Roelcke V, Lepicard E, Topp S, editors. Science, scapegoats, self-reflection: the shadow of Nazi medical crimes on medicine and bioethics. Göttingen: V & R unipress; 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    Topp S. Geschichte als Argument in der Nachkriegsmedizin: Formen der Vergegenwärtigung der nationalsozialistischen Euthanasie. Göttingen: V & R unipress; 2013.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Gerst T. Ärztliche Standesorganisation und Standespolitik in Deutschland 1945–1955. Stuttgart: Steiner; 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Roelcke V. Trauma or responsibility? Memories and historiographies of Nazi psychiatry in postwar Germany. In: Sarat A, Davidovich N, Alberstein M, editors. Trauma and memory. Stanford: Stanford University Press; 2007. pp. 225–42.

    Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Weinke A. Judging medical crimes in divided Germany. In: Roelcke V, Topp S, Lepicard E, editors. Silence, scapegoats, self-reflection: the shadow of Nazi medical crimes on medicine and bioethics. Göttingen: V & R unipress; 2014. pp. 87–100.

    Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    Roelcke V. Between professional honor and self-reflection: the German Medical Association’s reluctance to address medical malpractice during the National Socialist era, ca. 1985–2012. In: Roelcke V, Topp S, Lepicard E, editors. Silence, scapegoats, self-reflection: the shadow of Nazi medical crimes on medicine and bioethics. Göttingen: V&R unipress; 2014. pp. 243–80.

    Google Scholar 

  133. 133.

    Reis S. Reflections on the Nuremberg Declaration of the German Medical Assembly. Isr Med Assoc J. 2012;14:532–4.

    Google Scholar 

  134. 134.

    Martini P. Methodenlehre der therapeutisch-klinischen Forschung. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer; 1947.

    Google Scholar 

  135. 135.

    Forsbach R. Die Medizinische Fakultät der Universität Bonn im “Dritten Reich”. München: Oldenbourg; 2006.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  136. 136.

    Daemmrich A. Pharmacopolitics: drug regulation in the United States and Germany. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press; 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  137. 137.

    Stapel U. Die Arzneimittelgesetze 1961 und 1976. Stuttgart: Deutscher Apotheker Verlag; 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  138. 138.

    Regulations on Human Experimentations, Ordinance 4189; 11 Dec 1980.

  139. 139.

    Sus J. Our mourning and cry – on the destruction of our brothers in Europe. In: Mikhtave le-haver. 1942.

    Google Scholar 

  140. 140.

    Michlesohn J. A Report from the International Conference of Physicians in London, 25–27 September 1946. Mikhtave le-haver. 1946;150:1319–20.

    Google Scholar 

  141. 141.

    Bring Punishment to the German Physician – the Criminals of the Profession of Medicine, In: Mikhtave le-haver. 1945;120.

  142. 142.

    Mordechai E, Dvorjetski M. The man, the researcher and the teacher, Iyunim beTkufat haShoah. 1979. pp. 11–8.

    Google Scholar 

  143. 143.

    Cohen B. Israeli Holocaust research: birth and evolution. London, New York: Routledge; 2013. pp. 126–32.

    Google Scholar 

  144. 144.

    Dvorjetski M. On the crime of the German physicians and their punishment. Mikhtave le-haver. 1947;142.

  145. 145.

    The Struggle for life and death in the ghettos under the Nazi occupation, Dapim Refuyiim. 6 September 1946;61.

  146. 146.

    The Jerusalem Declaration on Medical Ethics. Dapim refuiyim. December 1952;11(4):329–32. [Reprinted in Etienne Lepicard’s contribution in this volume.]

  147. 147.

    Dvorjetski M. The skeleton collection from Strasburg. Dapim Refuiyim. 1950;9:93–103.

    Google Scholar 

  148. 148.

    Caplan A, editor. When medicine went mad: bioethics and the Holocaust. Totowa: Humana Press; 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  149. 149.

    Weitz Y. Political dimensions of Holocaust memory in Israel during the 1950s. Isr Aff. 1995;1(3):129–45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  150. 150.

    Zertal I. Israel’s Holocaust and the politics of nationhood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2005.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  151. 151.

    Klar Y, Schori‐Eyal N. The “never again” state of Israel: the emergence of the Holocaust as a core feature of Israeli identity and its four incongruent voices. J Soc Issues. 2013;69(1):125–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  152. 152.

    Farfel Z. Medicine during the Holocaust in the light of medical literature of the 1990s. Harefuah. 2000;138(10):189–91.

    Google Scholar 

  153. 153.

    Herzog R. Holocaust doctor survivors in Israel 1945–1952: from early positions to professional integration. Harefuah. 2017;156(4):204–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  154. 154.

    Spencer T. Medicine and the Holocaust: articles from “Harefuah” [and “Mikhtav le-haver”] (1946—2005), Ramat Gan: Israel Medical Association, 2007.

  155. 155.

    Raches A. Medical ethics: regulations and position papers. Ramat Gan: IMA, Ethics Department;2010

    Google Scholar 

  156. 156.

    Davidovitch N, Seidelman R, Shifra S. Contested bodies: medicine, public health and mass immigration to Israel. Hagar. 2006;6(2):35–58.

    Google Scholar 

  157. 157.

    Siegal Gil. Western bio-ethics: Israel between North America and Europe. Harefuah. 2204;143(2):142–6.

    Google Scholar 

  158. 158.

    Prainsack B. Steitbare Zellen? Die Politik der Bioethik in Israel. Leviathan. 2005;33(1):69–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  159. 159.

    Borkan J, et al. A model of educating humanistic physicians in the 21st century: the new medicine, patient, and society course at Tel-Aviv University. Educ Health. 2000;13:346–55.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  160. 160.

    Nadav D. National Socialism and medicine. Tel-Aviv: Ministry of Defense; 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  161. 161.

    Aly G. Forschen an Opfern. Das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Hirnforschung und die “T4”. In: Aly G, editor. Aktion T4 1939–1945. Die “Euthanasie”-Zentrale in der Tiergartenstrasse 4. Berlin: Edition Hentrich; 1988. pp. 153–9.

    Google Scholar 

  162. 162.

    Aly G. Der saubere und der schmutzige Fortschritt. In: Aly G, editor. Reform und Gewissen: “Euthanasie” im Dienst des Fortschritts. Berlin: Rotbuch Verlag; 1985. pp. 9–78.

    Google Scholar 

  163. 163.

    Dickman S. Brain sections to be buried? Nature. 1989;339:458.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  164. 164.

    Dickman S. Memorial ceremony to be held. Nature. 1990;345:192.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  165. 165.

    Beck C. New questions raised by discovery in archives. History of the Max Planck Society. Max Planck Society. April 09, 2015. www.mg.de/9154722/discovery-archive . Accessed 6 Oct 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  166. 166.

    Weindling P. “Cleansing” anatomical collections. The politics of removing specimens from German anatomical and medical collections 1988–92. Ann Anat. 2012;194(3):237–42.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  167. 167.

    Shevell M. Racial hygiene, active euthanasia, and Julius Hallervorden. Neurology. 1992;42:2214–9.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  168. 168.

    Harper PS. Naming of syndromes and unethical activities: the case of Hallervorden and Spatz. Lancet. 1996;348:1224–5.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  169. 169.

    Shevell M. Hallervorden and history. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(1):3–4.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  170. 170.

    Panush RS, Paraschiv D, Dorff EN. The tainted legacy of Hans Reiter. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2003;32(4):231–6.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  171. 171.

    Woywodt A, Haubitz M, Haller H, Matteson EL. Wegener’s granulomatosis. Lancet. 2006;367:1362–6.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  172. 172.

    Woynott A, Matteson E. Should eponyms be abandoned? Yes. No. BMJ. 2007;335:424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  173. 173.

    Whitworth JA. Should Eponyms be abandoned? No. BMJ. 2007;335:425.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  174. 174.

    Strous R, Edelman MC. Eponyms and the Nazi era: time to remember and time for change. IMAJ. 2007;9:207–14.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  175. 175.

    Kondziella D. Thirty neurological eponyms associated with the Nazi era. Eur Neurol. 2009;62:56–64.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  176. 176.

    Falk RJ, et al. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s): an alternative name for Wegener’s granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63(4):862–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  177. 177.

    Zaller R. Hans Reiter and the politics of remembrance. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2003;32(4):237–41.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  178. 178.

    Fox M. Preserving Medical Eponyms Memorializing Nazi War Criminals in the Face of Prevalent Spoliation of Evidence in the Corpus of Medical Literature. 2017. https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B605UL7AlLTZNGVTY3pQRDNOQkk/view?usp=sharing_eil&ts=596fd38b . Accessed 4 June 2018.

  179. 179.

    Weber MM. Psychiatric Research and science policy in Germany. The history of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945. Hist Psychiatry. 2000;xi:235–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  180. 180.

    Goedert M, Ghetti B. Alois Alzheimer: his life and times. Brain Pathol. 2007;17(1):57–62.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  181. 181.

    Möller HJ, Graeber MB. The case described by Alois Alzheimer disease in 1911. Historical and conceptual perspectives based on the clinical record and neurohistological sections. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998;248:111–22.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  182. 182.

    Hippius H, Müller M. The work of Emil Kraepelin and his Research Group in München. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008;258(2):3.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  183. 183.

    Lange BM. Walther Spielmeyer. In: Ashwal S, editor. The founders of child neurology. San Francisco: Norman Publishing in Association with Child Neurology Society; 1990. pp. 587–93.

    Google Scholar 

  184. 184.

    Wässle H. A collection of brain specimens of “euthanasia” victims: the Series H of Julius Hallervorden. Endeavour. 2017;41(4):166–75.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  185. 185.

    Schmuhl HW. Brain research and the murder of the sick: The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for brain research, 1937–1945. In: Heim S, Sachse C, Walke W, editors. The Kaiser Wilhelm Society under national socialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2009. pp. 99–119.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  186. 186.

    Haymaker W. Cecile and Oskar Vogt. On the occasion of her 75th and his 80th birthday. Neurology. 1951;1(1):179–204.

  187. 187.

    Roelcke V. Funding the scientific foundations of race policies: Ernst Rüdin and the impact of career resources on psychiatric genetics, ca 1910–1945. In: Eckart W, editor. Man, medicine, and the state: the human body as an object of government sponsored medical research in the 20th century. Stuttgart: Steiner; 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  188. 188.

    Sachse C. What research, to what end? The Rockefeller foundation and the Max Planck Gesellschaft in the early Cold War. Cent Eur Hist. 2009;42:97–141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  189. 189.

    Macrakis K. The Rockefeller Foundation and German physics under National Socialism. Minerva. 1989;27:33–57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  190. 190.

    Peiffer J. Assessing neuropathological research carried out on victims of the ‘euthanasia’ programme. Med Hist J. 1999;34:339–56.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  191. 191.

    Müller-Hill B. Murderous science: elimination by scientific selection of Jews, Gypsies, and others, Germany 1933–1945. Oxford: Oxford; 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  192. 192.

    Alexander L. Neuropathology and neurophysiology, including electroencephalography, in wartime Germany. Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee G-2 Division SHAEF (Rear) APO 413. July 20, 1945, Source: National Archives (USA).

  193. 193.

    Schmidt U. Justice at Nuremberg: Leo Alexander and the Nazi Doctors’ Trial. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2004.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  194. 194.

    Peiffer J. Letter to W. Seidelman. April 2. 1998: personal archives of W. Seidelman.

  195. 195.

    Chernow R. The Warburgs: the twentieth century odyssey of a remarkable Jewish family. New York: Random House; 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  196. 196.

    Stern K. The pillar of fire. New York: Harcourt, Brace; 1951.

    Google Scholar 

  197. 197.

    Weindling P. Health, race and German politics between national unification and Nazism 1870–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge Unviversity Press; 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  198. 198.

    Weber MM. Editorial: Ernst Rüdin, 1874–1952: a German psychiatrist and geneticist. Am J Med Genet. 1996;67:323–31.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  199. 199.

    Gottesman II, Bertelsen A. Legacy of German psychiatric genetics: hindsight is always 20/20. Am J Med Genet. 1996;67:317–22.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  200. 200.

    Zerbin-Rüdin E, Kendler KS. Ernst Rüdin (1874–1952) and his Genealogic-demographic department in Munich (1917–1986): an introduction to their family studies of schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet. 1996;67:332–7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  201. 201.

    Kendler KS, Rüdin EZ. Abstract and Review of “Studien über Vererbung und Entstehung Geistiger Störungen. I. Zur Vererbung und Neuentstehung der Dementia praecox.” (Studies on the Inheritance and Origin of Mental Illness: I. To the Prolem of the Inheritance and Primary Origin of Dementia Praecox.). Am J Med Genet. 1996;67:338–42.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  202. 202.

    Kendler KS, Zerbin-Rüdin E. Abstract and Review of “Zur Erbpathologie der Schizophrenie” (Contribution to the Genetics of Schizophrenia). Am J Med Genet. 1996;67:343–6.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  203. 203.

    Ruter C. Presidential commission “History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in the National Socialist era”. 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  204. 204.

    Max Planck Society. Symposium in Berlin. August 2001. Biomedical Sciences and Human Experimentation at Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes – The Auschwitz Connection. Max Planck Research supplement. 3/2001. 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  205. 205.

    Zeidman L. Declining use of the Hallervorden-Spatz disease eponym in the last two decades. Neurology. 2012;78(1):Supplement P04.002.

    Google Scholar 

  206. 206.

    Gannon M. Germany to probe Nazi-era medical science. Science Magazine. 2017. http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/01/germany-probe-nazi-era-medical-science . Accessed 5 Oct 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  207. 207.

    Erdmann KD. Das Ende des Reiches und die Entstehung der Republik Österreich, der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Stuttgart: Klett Verlag; 1976.

    Google Scholar 

  208. 208.

    Birke A. Nation ohne Haus. Deutschland 1945–1961. Berlin: Siedler; 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  209. 209.

    Kleßmann C. Die doppelte Staatsgründung. Deutsche Geschichte 1945–1955. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht; 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  210. 210.

    Winkler HA. Deutsche Geschichte vom ‘Dritten Reich’ bis zur Wiedervereinigung. Der lange Weg nach Westen, Vol. 2. München: C.H.Beck; 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  211. 211.

    Echternkamp J. Nach dem Krieg. Alltagsnot, Neuorientierung und die Last der Vergangenheit. Zürich: Pendo; 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  212. 212.

    Raim E. Nazi crimes against Jews and German post-war justice. The West German judicial system during allied occupation (1945–1949). Berlin: De Gruyter; 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  213. 213.

    de Mildt D, editor. Tatkomplex: NS-Euthanasie. Die ost- und westdeutschen Strafurteile seit 1945. Vol. 2. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  214. 214.

    Tübingen 1 Js 85-87/47 = Ks 6/49, State Archive Sigmaringen Wü 29/3 T 1 Nr. 1752–1759.

  215. 215.

    Frankfurt 4a Js 3/46 = 4 KLs 7/47, Main State Archive Wiesbaden, Abt. 461, Nr. 32061/1–51; Abt. 461, Nr. 31898; Abt. 461, Nr. 30012a .

  216. 216.

    Frankfurt 4a Js 2/47 = 4 Ks 1/47, Main State Archive Wiesbaden, Abt. 461, Nr. 32061/45–50.

  217. 217.

    Raim E. Justiz zwischen Diktatur und Demokratie. Wiederaufbau und Ahndung von NS-Verbrechen in Westdeutschland 1945–1949. München: Oldenbourg; 2013. pp. 1053–94.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  218. 218.

    Böhm B, Hacke G, editors. Fundamentale Gebote der Sittlichkeit: Der “Euthanasie“-Prozess vor dem Landgericht Dresden 1947. Dresden: Sandstein Verlag; 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  219. 219.

    Dencker F. Strafverfolgung der Euthanasie-Täter nach 1945. Z Juristische Zeitgesch. 2006;7:119.

    Google Scholar 

  220. 220.

    Hohendorf G. The Sewering Affair. Korot. 2007/2008, published 2009. 19:83–104.

  221. 221.

    Hoppe JD, Vilmar K. Hans Joachim Sewering † – Gestalter im Dienst der Ärzteschaft. Dtsch Arztebl. 2010;107:A1409.

    Google Scholar 

  222. 222.

    Hohendorf G, Fangerau H, Wahrig B. Kein Hinweis auf die Rolle im Nationalsozialismus (letter to the editor). Dtsch Arztebl. 2010;107:A1520.

    Google Scholar 

  223. 223.

    Kater MH. The Sewering scandal of 1993 and the German medical establishment. In: Berg M, Cocks G, editors. Medicine and modernity – public health and medical care in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1997. pp. 213–34.

    Google Scholar 

  224. 224.

    White LW. The Nazi doctors and the medical community, honor or censure? The case of Hans Sewering. J Med Humanit. 1996;17:119–35.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  225. 225.

    Craig WR. Top German Doctor Admits SS Past. NY Times. Jan 16, 1993.

  226. 226.

    Leaning J. German Doctors and their Secrets. NY Times. Feb 2, 1993.

  227. 227.

    Anonymous. Entmündigung zur Herde – Die ärztlichen Standesgremien nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Spiegel. 1978;21:77–88.

    Google Scholar 

  228. 228.

    Kater MH. Doctors under Hitler. Chapel Hill NC, London: The University of North Carolina Press; 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  229. 229.

    Kochen M. Ehemaliger SS-Mann künftiger Präsident des Weltärztebundes? ZFA (Stuttgart). 1993;69(1):8.

    Google Scholar 

  230. 230.

    Seidelman WE. ‘Requiescat sine pace’: recollections and reflections on the World Medical Association, the case of Prof. Dr. Hans Joachim Sewering and the murder of Babette Fröwis. In: Roelcke V, Topp S, Lepicard E, editors. Silence, scapegoats, self-reflection: the shadow of Nazi medical crimes on medicine and bioethics. Göttingen: V&R unipress; 2014. pp. 281–300.

    Google Scholar 

  231. 231.

    BÄK. Sewering Ziel einer Verleumdungsaktion. Dtsch Arztebl. 1993;90:C113.

    Google Scholar 

  232. 232.

    Kohl HH. Sewering wird nicht Präsident. Frankfurter Rundschau. Jan 25, 1993.

  233. 233.

    Scarlettar R. Motives and actions are misrepresented (Letter to the editor). Dtsch Arztebl. 1993;90:B–550.

    Google Scholar 

  234. 234.

    Anonymous. Professor Sewering’s resignation from WMA President-Elect. World Med J. 1993;39:22–3.

    Google Scholar 

  235. 235.

    Vilmar K. Statement by the President of the German Medical Association on the occasion of the 135th Council Session of the World Medical Association on the waiver by Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Hans Joachim Sewering of the office of ‘President-Elect’ of the World Medical Association. World Med J. 1993;39:22–3.

    Google Scholar 

  236. 236.

    HL. Die Delegierten begrüßen Sewerings Rückzieher. Deutsche Ärztezeitung. May 10, 1993:8.

  237. 237.

    Jachertz N. Sewering – Schlußstrich. Dtsch Ärztebl. 1993;90:B1124–5.

    Google Scholar 

  238. 238.

    Franzblau M. Nazi medical crimes unpunished 50 years later. Dermatopathology. 1996;2:83–6.

    Google Scholar 

  239. 239.

    Krischer M. Kinderhaus – Leben und Ermordung des Mädchens Edith Hecht. München: DVA; 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  240. 240.

    Anonymous, SZ-Gespräch mit Professor Hans Joachim Sewering zu Euthanasie-Vorwürfen aus der Ärzteschaft – “Ich habe keinen Grund, mich zu verstecken.” Süddeutsche Zeitung – Dachauer SZ. 22 Jan 1993.

  241. 241.

    Jachertz N. Sewering – Ende einer Karriere: Weshalb der designierte Präsident des Weltärztebundes sein Amt nicht antrat und was 1943 in Schönbrunn passierte. Dtsch Ärzteblatt. 1993;90:B189–90.

    Google Scholar 

  242. 242.

    Soyer T. “Die Schwestern ahnten, was mit diesen Leuten passiert” – Interview mit Generaloberin Benigna und Domkapitular Anneser über die “Euthanasie”-Opfer aus Schönbrunn während der Jahre 1940 bis 1945. Süddeutsche Zeitung, local issue Dachauer SZ. Jan 25/26, 1997;14–5.

  243. 243.

    Soyer T. Sewering verzichtet auf Ehrenamt – Katholischer Orden bezweifelt Darstellung des Mediziners. Süddeutsche Zeitung. Jan 23/24, 1993.

  244. 244.

    Burleigh M. Death and deliverance: ‘euthanasia’ in Germany c. 1900–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  245. 245.

    Klee E. “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat – Die “Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens”. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer; 1983.

    Google Scholar 

  246. 246.

    Schmuhl HW. Rassenhygiene, Nationalsozialismus, Euthanasie – Von der Verhütung zur Vernichtung ‘lebensunwerten Lebens’, 1890–1945. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht; 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  247. 247.

    Faulstich H. Hungersterben in der Psychiatrie 1914–1949 – Mit einer Topographie der NS-Psychiatrie. Freiburg: Lambertus; 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  248. 248.

    Rotzoll M, Hohendorf G, Fuchs P, et al., editors. Die nationalsozialistische “Euthanasie”-Aktion “T4” und ihre Opfer – Geschichte und ethische Konsequenzen für die Gegenwart. Paderborn, München: Schönigh; 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  249. 249.

    Hohendorf G. Euthanasie im Nationalsozialismus – Historischer Kontext und Handlungsspielräume der Akteure. In: Sirl MB Sr., Pfister P, editors. Die Assoziationsanstalt Schönbrunn. Regensburg: Schnell & Steiner; 2011. pp. 53–82.

    Google Scholar 

  250. 250.

    Strous R. Hitler’s psychiatrists: healers and researchers turned executioners and its relevance today. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2006;14:30–7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  251. 251.

    Hohendorf G. “Death as a release from suffering” – the history and ethics of assisted dying in Germany since the end of the 19th century. Neurol Psychiatry Brain Res. 2016;22:56–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  252. 252.

    Schmidt G. Selektion in der Heilanstalt 1939–1945. Stuttgart: Evangelisches Verlagswerk; 1965.

    Google Scholar 

  253. 253.

    Richarz B. Heilen, Pflegen, Töten: Zur Alltagsgeschichte einer Heil- und Pflegeanstalt bis zum Ende des Nationalsozialismus. Göttingen: Verl. für Med. Psychologie im Verl. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht; 1987. pp. 177–88.

    Google Scholar 

  254. 254.

    Kipfelsperger T. Medizinhistorische Erkenntnisse aus den Krankenakten von Schönbrunn. In: Sirl MB Sr., Pfister P, editors. Die Assoziationsanstalt Schönbrunn. Regensburg: Schnell & Steiner; 2011. pp. 119–40.

    Google Scholar 

  255. 255.

    Mitscherlich A, Mitscherlich M. Die Unfähigkeit zu trauern – Grundlagen kollektiven Verhaltens. München: Piper; 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  256. 256.

    Weindling P. Nazi medicine and the Nuremberg trials. From medical war crimes to informed consent. London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2004.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  257. 257.

    Bonah C, Schmaltz F. From witness to indictee: Eugen Haagen and his court hearings from the Nuremberg medical trial (1946–47) to the Struthof medical trials (1952–54). In: Weindling P, editor. From clinic to concentration camp: reassessing Nazi medical and racial research, 1933–1945. Abingdon: Routledge; 2017. pp. 293–313.

    Google Scholar 

  258. 258.

    Bonah C, Schmaltz F. The Struthof medical trials 1952–1954. Prosecution and judgement of Nazi physicians Otto Bickenbach and Eugen Haagen at military tribunals in France. 2018. Unpublished manuscript.

  259. 259.

    Bonah C, Schmaltz F. From Nuremberg to Helsinki: The preparation of the Declaration of Helsinki in the light of the prosecution of medical war crimes at the Struthof Medical Trials, France 1952–1954. In: Schmidt U, Frewer A, editors. Human research ethics and the Helsinki Declaration. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2019. pp. 293–315.

    Google Scholar 

  260. 260.

    Toledano R. Les Expériences médicales du Professeur Eugen Haagen de la Reichsuniversität Strassburg: Faits, contexte et procès d’un médecin national-socialiste. Strasbourg: MD Thesis University of Strasbourg; 2010.

  261. 261.

    Mitscherlich A, Mielke F. Das Diktat der Menschenverachtung. Eine Dokumentation. Heidelberg: Verlag Lambert Schneider; 1947.

    Google Scholar 

  262. 262.

    Meeting held in FIAT Conference Room at Hoechst on 15 May 1946 to consider evidence bearing on the commission of war crimes by German scientists, TNA London, FO 1031/74. The National Archive (TNA), London.

  263. 263.

    Minutes of Meeting to Discuss War Crimes of Medical Nature executed in Germany under the Nazi regime on 31 July 1946 in the Pasteur Institute, Paris, The National Archives London, WO 390/471. In: Dörner K, Ebbinghaus A, Linne K, Roth KH, Weindling P, editors. Der Nürnberger Ärzteprozeß 1946/47. Wortprotokolle, Anklage- und Verteidigungsmaterial, Quellen zum Umfeld. München: Saur; 2000, doc. 40, fiche 8/00505-00507; Commission scientifique internationale pour l’investigation des crimes de guerre de nature médicale, 16 and 17 October 1946, Archives de Institut Pasteur, Fonds Lépine. In: Ibid, doc. 41, fiche 8/00509-00520.

  264. 264.

    Lepicard E. The Nuremberg Medical Trial and its reception in France and Israel, 1947–1952: a comparative perspective. In: Roelcke V, Topp S, Lepicard E, editors. Silence, scapegoats, self-reflection. The shadow of Nazi medical crimes on medicine and Bioethics. Göttingen: V&R unipress; 2014. pp. 47–85.

    Google Scholar 

  265. 265.

    Noyer F. Le docteur Paul Cibrie (1881–1965) et l’Association Medicale Mondiale. Strasbourg: MD Thesis University of Strasbourg; 2016.

  266. 266.

    Archives of the World Medical Assiociation, Geneva (WMA Archives), 1947_1_GA_1, WMA Agenda of the First Annual Meeting of the General Assembly, September 17, 1947, Motions 27–29.

  267. 267.

    WMA Minutes of the First Annual Meeting of the General Assembly, September 17–20, 1947, Resolution 98 War Crimes and Resolution 102 War Crimes.

  268. 268.

    WMA Archives, 1948_150_CS_2, WMA War Crimes and Medicine. The German Betrayal and a Re-Statement of the Ethics of Medicine (Draft Memorandum), C4, 9 pages.

  269. 269.

    WMA Archives, 1948_151_CS_3, Letter to the members of Council, 1948 “War crimes and Medicine”. WMA Archives, 1948_151_CS_3, WMA Committees.

  270. 270.

    WMA Archives, 1949_7_GA_3, WMA Preliminary report submitted. Medical Ethics, G.A.3/49 C, 4 pages.

  271. 271.

    Archives WMA, 1951_12_GA_5, A propos d’un code de droit international médical. Dr. P. Cibrie, 16 April 1951, 8.12.51, 5 pages.

  272. 272.

    Voncken J. La médicine devant la guerre. Ce que devrait être un Code de Droit International Médical. Presse médicale. 1950;58:1422–3.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  273. 273.

    Archives WMA, 1952_17_GA_6, Procès Verbal de la Cinquième Assemblée Générale, Stockholm, September 16–20, 1951, p. 12.

  274. 274.

    Anonymous. Conclusions de l’Académie à propos de l’expérimentation sur l’homme. Bull Acad Natl Med 1952 ; 136 (33–34): 562–63.

  275. 275.

    Tribunal Militaire Permanent Metz: Notes d’audiences du 16.12.–23.12.1952, Dépot Central d’archives de la justice militaire (DCAJM), Le Blanc, Tribunal Permanent des Forces Armées Lyon, TPFA Lyon, Jugement 202/2, Info 457.

  276. 276.

    WMA Archives, 1954_30_GA_8, Supplementary Report of the Medical Ethics Committee. Human Experimentation by Dr. P. Cibrie, June 17, 1954, 2 pages.

  277. 277.

    Shimkin MB. The problem of experimentation on human beings. Res Work Point View Sci. 1953;117(3035):205–7.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  278. 278.

    Archives WMA, 1960_58_GA_14, Report of the Medical Ethics Committee at the XIVth General Assembly West Berlin, Germany, September 15–22, 1960 by Dr. Hugh Clegg, 17.2/60.

  279. 279.

    Satkiewicz P. Nie poczuwam się do żadnej winy. Zeznania esesmanów z załogi KL Auschwitz w procesie przed Najwyższym Trybunałem Narodowym w Krakowie (24 listopad – 16 grudnia 1947). Oświęcim: PMAB; 2016.

    Google Scholar 

  280. 280.

    Cyprian T, Sawicki J, editors. Siedem procesów przed Najwyższym Trybunałem Narodowym. Poznań: Instytut Zachodni; 1962.

    Google Scholar 

  281. 281.

    Lorska D. Wspomnienia z Bloku 10. Dr Hans Muench. Przegl Lek Oświęcim. 1966;6(1):105–7.

    Google Scholar 

  282. 282.

    Lifton RJ. The Nazi doctors. Medical killing and the psychology of genocide. New York: Basic Books; 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  283. 283.

    Sterkowicz S. Zbrodnie hitlerowskiej medycyny. Warszawa: Bellona; 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  284. 284.

    Sterkowicz S. Lekarze – mordercy spod znaku swastyki. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek; 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  285. 285.

    Sterkowicz S. Nieludzka medycyna – lekarze w służbie nazizmu. Warszawa: Medyk; 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  286. 286.

    Lang HJ. Die Frauen von Block 10. Medizinische Versuche in Auschwitz. Hamburg: Hoffmann & Campe; 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  287. 287.

    Weindling P. Victims and survivors of Nazi human experiments: science and suffering in the Holocaust. London: Bloomsbury; 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  288. 288.

    Posner GL. Ware J. Mengele. Polowanie na anioła śmierci. Kraków: Universitas; 2000. orig. title: Mengele. The complete story.

    Google Scholar 

  289. 289.

    Klee E. Auschwitz. Medycyna III Rzeszy i jej ofiary. Kraków: Universitas; 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  290. 290.

    Muench H. Głód I czas przeżycia w obozie oświęcimskim. Med Rev Auschwitz. 1967;7(1):71–88.

    Google Scholar 

  291. 291.

    Auschwitz w oczach SS. Rudolf Hoess, Pery Broad, Johann Paul Kremer. Oświęcim: PMAB 2012 [orig. title: Auschwitz in den Augen der SS. Rudolf Hoess, Pery Broad, Johann Paul Kremer].

  292. 292.

    Sehn J. Sprawa oświęcimskiego lekarza SS J.P. Kremera. Przegl Lek Oświęcim. 1962;2(1):49–61.

    Google Scholar 

  293. 293.

    Wóycicka Z. Przerwana żałoba. Polskie spory wokół pamięci nazistowskich obozów koncentracyjnych i zagłady 1944–1950. Warszawa: Trio; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  294. 294.

    Mikulski J. Medycyna hitlerowska w służbie III Rzeszy. Warszawa: PWN; 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  295. 295.

    Fedorowicz T. Uwagi o rewirach i funkcyjnych obozowych. Przegl Lek Oświęcim. 1969;9(1):148–53.

    Google Scholar 

  296. 296.

    Werner S, Zittle C, Schmaltz F, editors. Ludwik Fleck. Style myślowe i fakty. Artykuły i świadectwa. Warszawa: PAN 2007. Chapter 3, Fleck L. W sprawie doświadczeń na ludziach; p. 298–302 [first published: Polski Tygodnik Lekarski. 1948;3(35):1052–4]

  297. 297.

    Nasierowski T, Herczyńska G, Myszka DM, editors. Zagłada chorych psychicznie. Pamięć i historia. Warszawa: Eneteia; 2012. pp. 249–56. Part 4, chapter 2, Wnuk R. II wojna światowa w pamięci historycznej Polaków.

    Google Scholar 

  298. 298.

    Jewish Medical Association of Palestine. Motion to the World Medical Association (1947). With an Introduction by Etienne Lepicard. Roelcke V, Topp S, Lepicard E, editors. Silence, scapegoats, self-reflection. The shadow of Nazi medical crimes on Medicine and bioethics. Göttingen: V&R unipress; 2014. p. 315–26.

  299. 299.

    Baruk H. Les problèmes nouveaux de l’éthique médicale: À propos du Deuxième Congrès Mondial des Médecins Juifs (Jérusalem, Août, 1952). Presse méd. 1952;60(72):1544–5.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  300. 300.

    Baruk H. Mémoires d’un neuropsychiatre. 2nd ed. Paris: Téqui; 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  301. 301.

    Pichot P. Éloge de Henri Baruk (1897–1999). Bull Acad Natl Med. 2000;184(7):1353–8.

    Google Scholar 

  302. 302.

    Dvorjetski M. Bein ha-betarim (Hb, lit. “among the pieces”). Jerusalem: Kiryat-sefer; 1956.

    Google Scholar 

  303. 303.

    Krieger M. The Hebrew Medical Union at the meeting of the WMA in Paris. Mikhtav le-haver. 1947;172:1535–7.

    Google Scholar 

  304. 304.

    Zalashik R. Nazi medical atrocities and the Israeli medical discourse from the 1940s to the 1990s. In: Roelcke V, Topp S, Lepicard E, editors. Silence, scapegoats, self-reflection. The shadow of Nazi medical crimes on medicine and bioethics. Göttingen: V&R unipress; 2014. pp. 195–210.

    Google Scholar 

  305. 305.

    Lepicard E. Trauma, memory, and euthanasia at the NMT, 1946–1947. In: Sarat A, Davidovitch N, Alberstein M, editors. Trauma and memory. Reading, healing and making law. Stanford: Stanford University Press; 2009. pp. 204–24.

    Google Scholar 

  306. 306.

    Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunal under Control Council Law No. 10. Vols. I-II. Washington, D.C.: Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office; 1950.

  307. 307.

    Pasternak A. Inhuman research, medical experiments in German concentration camps. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado; 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  308. 308.

    Dvorjetski M. Europa lelo yeladim (Hb, lit. “Europe without children”). Yad Vashem; 1959.

  309. 309.

    Baruk H. La défense de la vie et le caractère sacré de la médecine à propos de l’expérimentation médicale criminelle. La Presse médicale. 1948;56(45):551–2.

  310. 310.

    Baruk H. La question de ‘l’expérimentation chez l’homme’ en médicine: Essai thérapeutique licite et expérimentation illicite. La semaine des hôpitaux de Paris. 1954;30(31): 1962–6.

  311. 311.

    Deniker P. Eloge de Jean Delay (1907–1987). Bull Acad Natl Med. 1988;172(4):557–66.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  312. 312.

    Shorter E, Healy D. Shock therapy: a history of electroconvulsive treatment in mental illness. Piscataway: Rutgers University Press; 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  313. 313.

    Goren Sh. [Hb, lit. “Is it permitted to volunteer for an experiment in which the effect of a new treatment is tested?,” Torah and Medicine, Halakhic Studies on Medical Topics]. Tel Aviv: Hidra rabah Press; 2011. p. 288.

  314. 314.

    Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4 November 1950, Council of Europe, ETS No. 5.

  315. 315.

    The Belmont Report, Washington D.C. 1978.

  316. 316.

    Beauchamp T, Childress J. Principles of biomedical ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  317. 317.

    Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine: Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, Oviedo, 4 April 1997, Council of Europe, CETS No 164.

  318. 318.

    Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research, Strasbourg, 25 January 2005, CETS No 195.

  319. 319.

    Recommendation CM/Rec(2016)6 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on research on biological materials of human origin, adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 11 May 2016, Council of Europe, 2016.

  320. 320.

    Guide for research ethics committees members, Council of Europe, 2010.

  321. 321.

    Annas GJ, Grodin MA. Introduction. In: Annas GJ, Grodin MA, editors. The Nazi doctors and the Nuremberg Code. Human rights in human experimentation. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  322. 322.

    CIOMS. International ethical guidelines for health-related research involving humans. Geneva: Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences; 2016.

    Google Scholar 

  323. 323.

    Roelcke V, Maio G, editors. Twentieth century ethics of human subjects research. Historical perspectives on values, practices, and regulations. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag; 2004. Part 3: BCG Vaccination, the Lübeck Scandal, and the ‘Reichsrichtlinien’.

    Google Scholar 

  324. 324.

    Reichsministerium des Innern aufgrund von Vorschlägen des Reichsgesundheitsrates der geistlichen und der Unterrichtsangelegenheiten. Richtlinien für neuartige Heilbehandlung und für die Vornahme wissenschaftlicher Versuche am Menschen. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 20 März 1931: 509. English translation: German Guidelines on Human Experimentation. In: Reich WT, editor. Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Revised edition. Vol 5: Appendix. New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan; 1995. pp. 2762–3.

  325. 325.

    Pappworth MH. Human guinea pigs: experimentation on man. London: Routledge & K. Paul; 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  326. 326.

    Patrão Neves M. Respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity. In: ten Have HAMJ, Jean MS, editors. The UNESCO universal declaration on bioethics and human rights. Background, principles and application. Paris: UNESCO Publishing; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  327. 327.

    De Campos TC. The global health crisis. Ethical responsibilities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2017.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  328. 328.

    Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. General comment No. 14: The right to the highest attainable standard of health. New York: United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2000. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2f2000%2f4&Lang=en . Accessed 1 July 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  329. 329.

    National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The Belmont report. Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. 1979. https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/belmont-report/index.html#xinform . Accessed 1 July 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  330. 330.

    International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO. The principle of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity. Paris: UNESCO; 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  331. 331.

    International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO. Report of the IBC on the principle of the sharing of benefits. 2015. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002332/233230E.pdf . Accessed 2 July 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  332. 332.

    Kant I. Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten. In: Königlich Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften, editor. Kant’s gesammelte Schriften. Vol. IV. Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer; 1911.

    Google Scholar 

  333. 333.

    Schöne-Seifert. Grundlagen der Medizinethik. Stuttgart: Kröner; 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  334. 334.

    Brandt AM. Racism and research: the case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Hastings Center Report. 1978. pp. 21–9.

    Google Scholar 

  335. 335.

    https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects [accessed 16 April 2018]

  336. 336.

    https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/files/eudralex/vol-10/3cc1aen_en.pdf . Accessed 30 May 2018.

  337. 337.

    http://www.ich.org/home.html [accessed 16 April 2018]

  338. 338.

    Druml C, Svolba G, Singer EA, Bonkovsky FO, Bauer P. Twenty years of the ethics committee at the medical faculty of the University of Vienna. An interim report. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1999;111(24):1019–26.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  339. 339.

    http://www.ethikkommissionen.at [accessed 16 April 2018]

  340. 340.

    https://ierm.univie.ac.at/ . Accessed 30 May 2018.

  341. 341.

    http://www.nek-cne.ch/de/startseite [accessed 16 April 2018]

  342. 342.

    http://www.ethikrat.org [accessed 16 April 2018]

  343. 343.

    https://www.bka.gv.at/publikationen-bioethik [accessed 16 April 2018]

  344. 344.

    https://www.bka.gv.at/veranstaltungen-bioethik [accessed 16 April 2018]

  345. 345.

    http://en.unesco.org/sites/default/files/list-unesco-chairs.pdf . Accessed 30 May 2018.

  346. 346.

    Druml C. Bioethics internationally and in Austria. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2016;128(7–8):229–33.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  347. 347.

    Druml C. The UNESCO International Bioethics Committee and the network of ethical advisory bodies in Europe: an interactive relationship. In: Global bioethics: the Impact of the UNESCO International Bioethics Committee. Cham: Springer; 2016. pp. 137–44.

    Google Scholar 

  348. 348.

    https://www.wma.net [accessed 16 April 2018]

  349. 349.

    Druml C, Singer E. Consent in emergency care research. Lancet. 2011;378(9785):26–7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  350. 350.

    Horton R. Vioxx, the implosion of Merck, and aftershocks at the FDA. Lancet. 2004;364(9450):1995–6.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  351. 351.

    Krumholz HM, et al. What have we learnt from Vioxx. BMJ. 2007;334(7585):120.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  352. 352.

    De Angelis C, Drazen JM, Frizelle FA, et al. Clinical trial registration: a statement from the international committee of medical journal editors. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1250–1.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  353. 353.

    https://www.nih.gov/health-information/nih-clinical-research-trials-you/list-registries [accessed 16 April 2018]

  354. 354.

    Grodin MA, Annas GJ. Legacies of Nuremberg. JAMA. 1996;276(20):1682–3. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1996.03540200068035 .

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  355. 355.

    International Military Tribunal. Trials of war criminals before the Nuremberg military tribunals under control council law no. 10. Washington, D.C. 1950. https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/NTs_war-criminals.html . Accessed 17 Sept 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  356. 356.

    The World Medical Association. WMA Declaration of Helsinki – Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects [ https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects , accessed 16 April 2018]

  357. 357.

    Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human. 2016. https://cioms.ch/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/WEB-CIOMS-EthicalGuidelines.pdf . Accessed 29 Sept 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  358. 358.

    United Nations. International covenant on civil and political rights. United Nations Treaty Ser, 999:171. 1966. https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&clang=_en . Accessed 19 Sept 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  359. 359.

    OAU. African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982) 1981; p. 18.

  360. 360.

    Ndebele P, Mwaluko G, Kruger M, et al. History of research ethics review in Africa. In: Kruger M, Ndebele P, Horn L, editors. Research ethics in Africa. Stellenbosch: SUN PRESS; 2014. pp. 3–10.

    Google Scholar 

  361. 361.

    Resnik DB. The ethics of HIV research in developing nations. Bioethics. 1998;12(4):286–306.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  362. 362.

    Kirigia JM, Wambebe C, Baba-Moussa A. Status of national research bioethics committees in the WHO African region. Bmc Med Ethics. 2005;6(10). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7292%2802%2900349-1 .

  363. 363.

    Milford C, Wassenaar D, Slack C. Resources and needs of research ethics commmittees in Africa: preparations for HIV Vaccine trials. Ethics Hum Res. 2006;28(2):1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  364. 364.

    Nyika A, Kilama W, Chilengi R, et al. Composition, training needs and independence of ethics review committees across Africa: are the gate-keepers rising to the emerging challenges? J Med Ethics. 2009;35(3):189 LP-193. http://jme.bmj.com/content/35/3/189.abstract .

    Article  Google Scholar 

  365. 365.

    Nyika A, Kilama W, Tangwa GB, et al. Capacity building of ethics review committees across Africa based on the results of a comprehensive needs assessment survey. Dev World Bioeth. 2009;9(3):149–56.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  366. 366.

    WHO AFRO. Status of reviews, authorizations and oversight for clinical trials in WHO African region, Report No.: AFR/RC67/14. 2017. http://www.afro.who.int/about-us/governance/sessions/sixty-seventh-session-who-regional-committee-africa . Accessed 16 Apr 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  367. 367.

    EDCTP. EDCTP1 Portfolio. 2017. http://www.edctp.org/projects-2/edctp-portfolio . Accessed 16 Apr 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  368. 368.

    Kruger M, Ndebele P, Horn L, editors. Research ethics in Africa: a resource for research ethics committees. Stellenbosch: SUN PRESS; 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  369. 369.

    Mokgatla B, Ijsselmuiden C, Wassenaar D, et al. Mapping research ethics committees in Africa: evidence of the growth of ethics review of health research in Africa. Dev World Bioeth. 2017:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/dewb.12146

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  370. 370.

    Sprumont D, Adebamowo C, Ateudjieu J, et al. Training and resources in research ethics evaluation. 2009. https://elearning.trree.org . Accessed 23 Sept 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  371. 371.

    Chilengi R, Nyika A, Tangwa GB, et al. Role of e-learning in teaching health research ethics and good clinical practice in Africa and beyond. Bioeth Educ. 2013;22(1):110–9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  372. 372.

    Pan African Clinical Trials Registry. [ http://www.pactr.org , accessed 9 Sept 2017]

  373. 373.

    Ijsselmuiden C, Marais D, Wassenaar D, et al. Mapping African ethical review committee activity onto capacity need: the MARC initiative and HRWeb’s interactive database of RECs in Africa. Dev World Bioeth. 2012;12(2):74–86. http://bmcmedethics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6939-9-6 .

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  374. 374.

    COHRED. RHInnOLabs. [ http://www.rhinnolabs.com , accessed 23 Sept 2018]

  375. 375.

    Mokgatla B, Bahati P, Jsselmuiden CI. Enhancing the efficiency and quality of African research ethics review processes – through an automated review platform. J AIDS Clin Res. 2017;8(2):8–10. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/enhancing-the-efficiency-and-quality-of-african-research-ethics-reviewprocesses--through-an-automated-review-platform-2155-6113-1000658.php?aid=85231 , accessed 16 April 2018.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  376. 376.

    Waddell R, Bukini D, Aboud M, et al. Enhanced REC collaborative review through video-conferencing. S Afr J Bioethics Law. 2016;9(2):84–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  377. 377.

    EDCTP. Annual report 2016. 2017. http://www.edctp.org/publication/edctp-annual-report-2016 . Accessed 16 Apr 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  378. 378.

    TRUST. Project deliverables and tools. 2018. http://trust-project.eu/ . Accessed 20 May 2018.

  379. 379.

    COHRED. http://frcweb.cohred.org . Accessed 20 May 2018

  380. 380.

    Miiro GM, Oukem-Boyer OOM, Sarr O, Rahmani M, et al. EDCTP regional networks of excellence: initial merits for planned clinical trials in Africa. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:258. http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-12-531 .

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  381. 381.

    South African San Institute. San code of ethics [Internet]. Kimberley; 2017. http://trust-project.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/San-Code-of-RESEARCH-Ethics-Booklet-final.pdf . Accessed 20 May 2018

  382. 382.

    Behrens KG. Towards an indigenous African bioethics. South Afr J Bioeth Law. 2013;6(1):32–5.

    Google Scholar 

  383. 383.

    Andoh CT. Bioethics and the challenges to its growth in Africa. Open J Philos. 2011;1(2):67–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  384. 384.

    Macklin R. The universality of the Nuremberg Code. In: Annas G, Grodin M, editors. The Nazi doctors and the Nuremberg Code: human rights in human experimentation. New York: Oxford of University Press; 2005. pp. 240–57.

    Google Scholar 

  385. 385.

    Jonsen A, Siegler M, Winslade W. Clinical ethics: a practical approach to ethical decisions. In: Clinical medicine. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  386. 386.

    Zhai X, Qiu R. Public health ethics. Beijing: Chinese Press of Social Science; 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  387. 387.

    Qiu R. The minutes on the first national symposium on ethical and legal issues in limiting and controlling procreation. Chin Health Law. 1993;5:44–6.

    Google Scholar 

  388. 388.

    Qiu R. Does eugenic law exist in China? In: Qiu R, editor. Bioethics: Asian perspectives – a quest for moral diversity. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2004. pp. 185–96.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  389. 389.

    He Z, editor. An introduction to medical ethics. Nanjing: Jiangsu Science and Technology Press; 1984. pp. 142–3.

    Google Scholar 

  390. 390.

    He L, et al., editor. Modern medical ethics. Hangzhou: Zhejiang Education Press; 1989. pp. 139–46.

    Google Scholar 

  391. 391.

    Wu X, et al., editor. Modern ethics of clinical medicine. Tianjin: Tianjin Peoples’ Press; 1990. pp. 354–7.

    Google Scholar 

  392. 392.

    Wu X, et al., editor. Medical morality: theory and practice. Tianjin: Tianjin Peoples’ Press; 1990. pp. 733–41.

    Google Scholar 

  393. 393.

    Chen M, et al., editor. Health law. Shanghai: Shanghai Medical University Press; 1999. pp. 200–5.

    Google Scholar 

  394. 394.

    Wu S. Medical ethics. Guangzhou: Guangdong High Education Press; 2013. pp. 190–1.

    Google Scholar 

  395. 395.

    Zhang Y. Medical ethics. Vol. 2. Beijing: Military Medical Science Press; 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  396. 396.

    Guo N, Liu Y. A course on medical ethics cases. Vol. 126. Beijing: People’s Military Medicine Press; 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  397. 397.

    Liu Y, et al. The theory and practice of medical ethics. Shijiazhuang: Hebei People’s Press; 2014. p. 114.

    Google Scholar 

  398. 398.

    Wang C, Zhang J. Medical Ethics. Beijing: People’s Health Press; 2015. pp. 154–6, 174–7.

    Google Scholar 

  399. 399.

    Qiu R, Zhang D. The humanist enlightenment of Nuremberg Code to reproductive ethics. Health Newspaper. 2016.

    Google Scholar 

  400. 400.

    Qiu R, Liang L. The claim of euthanasia being obligatory violates the principle of medical ethics. Health Newspaper. 2016.

    Google Scholar 

  401. 401.

    Myser D, et al. Bioethics is the love for life. Chin Med Ethics. 2008;21(1):6–9.

    Google Scholar 

  402. 402.

    Wang C. Is bioethics the love for life. Chin Med Ethics. 2008;21(5):9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  403. 403.

    Hu L. Examine common morality – on “bioethics being the love for life”. Chin Med Ethics. 2008;21(5):10–1.

    Google Scholar 

  404. 404.

    Zhu W. Remarks on “bioethics being the love for life. Chin Med Ethics. 2008;21(5):12–3.

    Google Scholar 

  405. 405.

    Zhang X. Some opinion on Myser’s thesis. Chin Med Ethics. 2008;21(5):13–4.

    Google Scholar 

  406. 406.

    Mao X. It is questionable to claim bioethics is the love for life. Chin Med Ethics. 2008;21(5):14–5.

    Google Scholar 

  407. 407.

    Liu M, Yu N. Bioethics cannot be reduced to the love for life. Chin Med Ethics. 2008;21(5):15.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  408. 408.

    Munson R. Intervention and reflection of basic issues in medical ethics. 8th ed. Belmont: Thomson Higher Education; 2008. pp. 755–6. Cited from Ross WD. The Right and the Good, Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1930.

    Google Scholar 

  409. 409.

    Qiu R. Promoting responsible research and enabling scientific research to serve people, address at the Avicenna scientific ethics prize-awarding ceremony at the headquarters of UNESCO. Chin Med Ethics. 2010;23(2):3–6.

    Google Scholar 

  410. 410.

    Qiu R. The path of bioethics in China for 30 years. Chin Med Ethics. 2013;25(1):3–6.

    Google Scholar 

  411. 411.

    Qiu R. Bioethics in China. In: Jennings B, editor. Encyclopedia of bioethics. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Cengage Learning; 2014. pp. 548–67.

    Google Scholar 

  412. 412.

    Qiu R. Understanding bioethics. Chin Med Ethics. 2015;28(3):297–302.

    Google Scholar 

  413. 413.

    Hochhuth R. Die Berliner Antigone. Erzählungen und Gedichte. Originally published in 1963. Stuttgart: Reclam Universal-Bibliothek; 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  414. 414.

    Nelson A. Red Orchestra. New York: Random House; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  415. 415.

    Oleschinski B. Der “Anatom der Gynäkologen”: Hermann Stieve und seine Erkenntnisse über die Todesangst und weiblichen Zyklus. In: Kahrs H, Meyer A, Esch MG, editors. Modelle für ein deutsches Europa – Ökonomie und Herrschaft im Grosswirtschaftsraum. Berlin: Rotbuch; 1992. pp. 211–8.

    Google Scholar 

  416. 416.

    Gollwitzer H, Kuhn K, Reinhold S, editors. Du hast mich heimgesucht in der Nacht. Abschiedsbriefe und Aufzeichnungen des Widerstandes 1933–1945. 8th ed. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus; 1994. 1. Auflage 1951.

    Google Scholar 

  417. 417.

    Orth B. Gestapo im OP: Bericht der Krankenhausärztin Charlotte Pommer. Berlin: Lukas; 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  418. 418.

    Winkelmann A, Schagen U. Hermann Stieve’s clinical-anatomical research on executed women during the “Third Reich”. Clin Anat. 2009;22(2):163–71.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  419. 419.

    Hildebrandt S. The women on Stieve’s list: victims of National Socialism whose bodies were used for anatomical research. Clin Anat. 2013;26:3–21.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  420. 420.

    Hildebrandt S, Bargmann W, von Hayek H. Careers in anatomy continuing through German National Socialism to postwar leadership. Ann Anat. 2013;195:283–95.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  421. 421.

    Hayek H. Die Läppchen und Septa interlobaria der menschlichen Lunge. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch. 1940;110(3):405–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  422. 422.

    Hayek H. Die menschliche Lunge. Berlin: Springer; 1953.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  423. 423.

    Hildebrandt S. The anatomy of murder: ethical transgressions and anatomical science during the Third Reich. New York: Berghahn Books; 2016.

    Google Scholar 

  424. 424.

    Mühlberger K. Enthebungen an der medizinischen Fakultät 1938–1945. Professoren und Dozenten. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1998;110(4–5):115–20.

    Google Scholar 

  425. 425.

    Jones DW. The history of Eduard Pernkopf’s Topographische Anatomie des Menschen. J Biocommun. 1988;15(2):2–12.

  426. 426.

    Israel HA, Seidelman W. Nazi origins of an anatomy text: the Pernkopf Atlas. J Am Med Assoc. 1996;276(20):1633.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  427. 427.

    Malina P, Spann G. Das Senatsprojekt der Universität Wien “Untersuchungen zur Anatomischen Wissenschaft in Wien 1938–1945”. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1999;111(18):743–53.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  428. 428.

    Hildebrandt S. Current status of identification of victims of the National Socialist regime whose bodies were used for anatomical purposes. Clin Anat. 2013;27:514–36.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  429. 429.

    Hildebrandt S. Capital punishment and anatomy: history and ethics of an ongoing association. Clin Anat. 2008;21:5–14.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  430. 430.

    Schönhagen B. Das Gräberfeld X auf dem Tübinger Stadtfriedhof. Die verdrängte “Normalität” nationalsozialistischer Vernichtungspolitik. In: Peiffer J, editor. Menschenverachtung und Opportunismus. Tübingen: Attempto-Verlag. Zur Medizin im Dritten Reich; 1992. pp. 69–92.

    Google Scholar 

  431. 431.

    Noack T, Heyll U. Der Streit der Fakultäten. Die medizinische Verwertung der Leichen Hingerichteter im Nationalsozialismus. In: Vögele J, Fangerau H, Noack T, editors. Geschichte der Medizin – Geschichte in der Medizin. Hamburg: Literatur Verlag; 2006. pp. 133–42.

    Google Scholar 

  432. 432.

    Lang HJ. August Hirt and “extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery” to anatomical institutes in National Socialism: a murderous change in paradigm. Ann Anat. 2013;195:373–80.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  433. 433.

    Hildebrandt S. Anatomie im Nationalsozialismus: Stufen einer ethischen Entgrenzung. Medizinhist J. 2013;48(2):153–85.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  434. 434.

    Lang HJ. Die Namen der Nummern: Wie es gelang, die 86 Opfer eines NS-Verbrechens zu identifizieren. Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer; 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  435. 435.

    http://www.bu.edu/jewishstudies/research/project-on-medicine-and-the-holocaust/recommendations-for-the-discovery-of-jewish-remains-project [last accessed 1 Jan 2018].

  436. 436.

    Weikart R. Darwinism and death: devaluing human life in Germany 1859–1920. J Hist Ideas. 2002;63(2):323–44.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  437. 437.

    Nietzsche F. Beyond good and evil, transl. Kaufmann W. New York: Vintage Books; 1966.

    Google Scholar 

  438. 438.

    Kofman S. Metaphoric architectures. In: Rickels L, editor. Looking after Nietzsche. Albany: State University of New York Press; 1990. pp. 89–112.

    Google Scholar 

  439. 439.

    Nietzsche F. Thus spake Zarathustra. Common T, translator. New York: Modern Library; n.d. [ https://archive.org/stream/thusspokezarathu00nietuoft#page/74/mode/2up ] (accessed 9 June 2017).

  440. 440.

    Battin MP. Assisted suicide: can we learn from Germany? Hastings Cent Rep. 1992;22(2):44–51.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  441. 441.

    Eaglestone R. The Holocaust and the postmodern. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  442. 442.

    Rothberg M. Traumatic realism: the demands of Holocaust representation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  443. 443.

    Galles AA. Artist’s statement [for Fourteen Stations]; n.d. [ http://www.ariegalles.com/pdf/Fourteen-Stations-Artist-Statement-Extended.pdf , accessed 18 Dec 2016]

  444. 444.

    Alpert N, Erony S, Galles AA, Kaminiarz V, Komar V, Liberman R, Menz M, Urbonas J, Weinstein A. Mastering death: artistic perspectives: artists and curator’s statements. Vienna: Josephinum; 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  445. 445.

    Felman S. The return of the voice: Claude Lanzmann’s Shoah. Chapter 7. In: Felman S, Laub D, editors. Testimony: crises of witnessing in literature, psychoanalysis, and history. New York: Routledge; 1992. pp. 204–83.

    Google Scholar 

  446. 446.

    Weinstein A. After Adorno: the essayistic impulse in Holocaust-related art [Ph.D. thesis]. New York: Institute of Fine Arts, New York University; 2006.

  447. 447.

    Weinstein A. Art after Auschwitz and the necessity of a postmodern modernism. In: Rosenberg A, Watson JR, Linke D, editors. Contemporary portrayals of Auschwitz and genocide: philosophical challenges. Amherst: Humanity Books; 2000. pp. 151–67.

    Google Scholar 

  448. 448.

    Weinstein A. The healing power of the artist? In: Weinstein A, editor. Vitaly Komar: three-day weekend. New York: The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, Humanities Gallery; 2005. pp. 20–5.

    Google Scholar 

  449. 449.

    Weinstein A. Irony and mystery: Vitaly Komar’s three-day weekend. Boulevard. 2006;21(2,3):116–22.

    Google Scholar 

  450. 450.

    Halberstadt A. I was reborn. Vilnius diary. New York: Box Turtle Press; 2014. pp. 55–7.

    Google Scholar 

  451. 451.

    Spiegelman A. Maus I: my father bleeds history. New York: Pantheon; 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  452. 452.

    Aviv R. The death treatment: when should people with a non-terminal illness be helped to die? New Yorker. 2015 June 22; 56–65. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/06/22/the-death-treatment . Accessed 3 Jan 2017.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Herwig Czech, Christiane Druml or Paul Weindling.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Czech, H., Druml, C. & Weindling, P. Medical Ethics in the 70 Years after the Nuremberg Code, 1947 to the Present. Wien Klin Wochenschr 130, 159–253 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00508-018-1343-y

Download citation