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Körperliche Aktivität und Training in der Prävention und Therapie des Typ 2 Diabetes mellitus

Physical activity and exercise training in the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Zusammenfassung

Lebensstil generell (Ernährung, Bewegung, Rauchverhalten) hat neben der genetischen Prädisposition einen starken Einfluss auf die Entwicklung eines Typ 2 Diabetes. Körperliches Training im Speziellen hat die Potenz nicht nur positiven Einfluss auf die Glykämie durch Verbesserung der Insulinresistenz und funktionelle Verbesserung der Insulinsekretion zu nehmen, sondern ist auch in der Lage das kardiovaskuläre Risiko zu senken.

Für einen substanziellen gesundheitlichen Nutzen sind wöchentlich mindestens 150 min aerobe körperliche Aktivität mit mittlerer oder höherer Intensität und zusätzlich muskelkräftigende Bewegungen erforderlich. Der positive Effekt von Bewegung steht in direktem Verhältnis zum Grad der erreichten kardiorespiratorischen Fitness der erreicht wird und hält nur so lange an, wie diese aufrecht erhalten werden kann. Der Effekt von Bewegung ist alters- und geschlechtsunabhängig und reproduzierbar.

Basierend auf der Evidenz betreffend Beratung und Verordnung möchte die Österreichische Diabetes Gesellschaft die Position eines Bewegungsberaters in die Behandlung integrieren.

Summary

Lifestyle in general (nutrition, exercise, smoking habits), besides the genetic predisposition, is known to be a strong predictor for the development of diabetes. Exercise in particular is not only useful in improving glycaemia by lowering insulin resistance and positively affect insulin secretion, but to reduce cardiovascular risk.

To gain substantial health benefits a minimum of 150 min of moderate or vigorous intense aerobic physical activity and muscle strengthening activities per week are needed. The positive effect of training correlates directly with the amount of fitness gained and lasts only as long as the fitness level is sustained. The effect of exercise is independent of age and gender. It is reversible and reproducible.

Based on the large evidence of exercise referral and prescription the Austrian Diabetes Associations aims to implement the position of a “physical activity adviser” in multi-professional diabetes care.

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Correspondence to Claudia Francesconi.

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Für C. Francesconi, C. Lackinger, R. Weitgasser, P. Haber und J. Niebauer besteht kein Interessenkonflikt.

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Francesconi, C., Lackinger, C., Weitgasser, R. et al. Körperliche Aktivität und Training in der Prävention und Therapie des Typ 2 Diabetes mellitus. Wien Klin Wochenschr 128 (Suppl 2), 141–145 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00508-015-0923-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00508-015-0923-3

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