Salo M. Effects of anaesthesia and surgery on the immune response. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1992;36:202–20.
Munford RS, Pugin J. Normal responses to injury prevent systemic inflammation and can be immunosuppressive. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163:316–21.
Schulze S. Humoral and neural mediators of the systemic response to surgery. Dan Med Bull. 1996;40:365–77.
Guirao X, Lowry SF. Biologic control of injury and inflammation: much more than too little or too late. World J Surg. 1996;20:437–46.
Mannick JA, Rodrick ML, Lederer JA. The immunologic response to injury. J Am Coll Surg. 2001;193:237–44.
Murphy TJ, Paterson HM, Mannick JA, Lederer JA. Injury, sepsis, and regulation of Toll-like receptors responses. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;75:400–7.
Murphy TJ, Paterson HM, Kriynovich S, Zang Y, Kurt-Jones EA, Mannick JA, et al. Linking the “two-hit” response following injury to enhanced TLR4 reactivity. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;77:16–23.
Hensler T, Hecker H, Heeg K, Heidecke CD, Bartels H, Barthlen W, et al. Distinct mechanisms of immunosuppression as a consequence of major surgery. Infect Immun. 1997;65:2283–91.
Mokart D, Capo C, Blache JL, Delpero JR, Houvenaeghel G, Martin C, et al. Early postoperative compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome is associated with septic complications after major surgical trauma in patients with cancer. Br J Surg. 2002;89:1450–6.
Tschoeke SK, Ertel W. Immunoparalysis after multiple trauma. Injury. 2007;38:1346–57.
Castellheim A, Brekke OL, Espevik T, Harboe M, Mollnes E. Innate immune responses to danger signals in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Scand J Immunol. 2009;69:479–91.
Ziegenfuss T, Wanner GA, Grass C, Bauer I, Schüder G, Kleinschmidt S, et al. Mixed agonistic-antagonistic cytokine response in whole blood from patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Intensive Care Med. 1999;25:279–87.
Angele MK, Faist E. Clinical review: immunodepression in the surgical patient and increased susceptibility to infection. Critical Care. 2002;6:298–305.
Flohé S, Lendemans S, Schade FU, Kreuzfelder E, Waydhas C. Influence of surgical intervention in the immune response of severely injured patients. Int Care Med. 2004;30:96–102.
Dehne M, Sablotzki A, Hoffmann A, Mühling J, Dietrich FE, Hempelmann G. Alterations of acute phase reaction and cytokine production in patients following severe burn injury. Burns. 2002;28:535–42.
Mokart D, Leone M, Sannini A, Brun JP, Tison A, Delpero JR, et al. Predictive perioperative factors for developing severe sepsis after major surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2005;95:776–81.
Hase S, Weinitschke K, Fischer K, Fornara P, Honda R, Unverzagt S, et al. Monitoring peri-operative immune suppression in renal cancer patients. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:1455–64.
Vuk-Pavlović S, Bulur PA, Lin Y, Qin R, Szumianski CL, Zhao X, et al. Immunosuppressive CD14 + HLA-DRlow/- monocytes in prostate cancer. Prostate. 2010;70:443–55.
Sapolsky RM, Romero LM, Munck AU. How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocr Rev. 2000;21:55–89.
Schwiebert LM, Schleimer RP, Radka SF, Ono SJ. Modulation of MHC class II expression in human cells by dexamethasone. Cell Immunol. 1995;165:12–9.
Le Tulzo Y, Pangault C, Amiot L, Guilloux V, Tribut O, Arvieux C, et al. Monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR transcriptional downregulation by cortisol during septic shock. Am J Crit Care Med. 2004;169:1144–51.
Sato N, Koeda K, Ikeda K, Kimura Y, Aoki K, Iwaya T, et al. Randomized study of the benefits of preoperative corticosteroid administration on the postoperative morbidity and cytokine response in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer. Ann Surg. 2002;236:184–90.
Annane D, Bellissant E, Bollaert PE, Briegel J, Confalonieri M, de Gaudio R, et al. Corticosteroids in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults. JAMA. 2009;301:2362–75.
Devaraj S, Rogers J, Jialal I. Statins and biomarkers of inflammation. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2007;9:33–41.
Quist-Paulsen P. Statins and inflammation: an update. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2010;25:399–405.
Bergmann M, Sautner T. Immunomodulatory effects of vasoactive catecholamines. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002;114:752–61.
Oberbeck R. Catecholamines: physiological immunomodulators during health and illness. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13:1979–89.
de Jager CPC, van Wijk PT, Mathoera RB, de Jong-Leuvenink J, van der Poll T, Wever PC. Lymphocytopenia and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio predict bacteremia better than conventional infection markers in an emergency care unit. Crit Care. 2010;14:R192.
Gang F, Guorong L, An Z, Anne GP, Christian G, Jacques T. Prediction of clear cell renal cell carcinoma by integrity of cell-free DNA in serum. Urology. 2010;75:262–5.
MacConmara MP, Maung AA, Fujimi S, McKenna AM, Delisle A, Lapchak PH, et al. Increased CD4 + CD25 + T regulatory cell activity in trauma patients depresses protective Th1 immunity. Ann Surg. 2006;244:514–23.
Knaus WA, Wagner DP, Draper EA, Zimmerman JE, Bergner M, Bastos PG. The APACHE III prognostic system (Risk prediction of hospital mortality for critically ill hospitalized Adults). Chest. 1991;100:1619–36.
American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Crit Care Med. 1992;20:864–74.
Elebute EA, Stoner HB. The grading of sepsis. Br J Surg. 1983;70:29–31.
Pilz G, Kaab S, Kreuzer E, Werdan K. Evaluation of definition and parameters for sepsis assessment in patients after cardiac surgrey. Infection. 1994;22:8–17.
Kellner P, Prondzinsky R, Pallman L, Siegmann S, Unverzagt S, Lemm H. Predictive value of outcome scores in patients suffering from cardiogenic shock complicating AMI. Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed. 2013;108:666–74.
Gornik I, Wagner J, Gasparović V, Lauc G, Gornik O. Free serum DNA is an early predictor of severity in acute pancreatitis. Clin Biochem. 2009;42:38–43.
Lam NY, Rainer TH, Chan LY, Joynt GM, Lo YM. Time course of early and late changes in plasma DNA in trauma patients. Clin Chem. 2003;49:1286–91.
Chiu TW, Young R, Chan LY, Burd A, Lo DY. Plasma cell-free DNA as an indicator of severity injury in burn patients. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44:13–7.
Rhodes A, Wort SJ, Thomas H, Collinson P, Bennett ED. Plasma DNA concentration as a predictor of mortality and sepsis in critically ill patients. Crit Care. 2006;10:R60.
Banki F, Mason RJ, Oh D, Hagen JA, DeMeester SR, Lipham JC, et al. Plasma DNA as a molecular marker for completeness of resection and recurrent disease in patients with esophageal cancer. Arch Surg. 2007;142:533–8.
Banki F, Mason RJ, Hagen JA, Demeester SR, Lipham JC, Danenberg K, et al. Plasma DNA: a molecular marker of surgical insult and postoperative recovery in esophageal cancer. Eur Surg Res. 2008;40:273–8.
Holdenrieder S, Burges A, Reich O, Spelsberg FW, Stieber P. DNA integrity in plasma and serum of patients with malignant and benign diseases. Am N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1137:162–70.
Assadullah K, Woiciechowsky C, Döcke WD, Liebenthal C, Wauer H, Kox W, et al. Immunodepression following neurosurgical procedures. Crit Care Med. 1995;23:1976–83.
Woiciechowsky C, Assadullah K, Nestler D, Eberhardt B, Platzer C, Schöning B, et al. Sympathetic activation triggers systemic interleukin-10 release in immunodepression induced by brain injury. Nat Med. 1998;4:808–13.
Woiciechowsky C, Schöning B, Lanksch WR, Volk HD, Döcke WD. Mechanisms of brain-mediated systemic anti-inflammatory syndrome causing immunodepression. J Mol Med (Berl). 1999;77:769–80.
Haga Y, Beppu T, Doi K, Nozawa F, Mugita N, Ikei S, et al. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ dysfunction following gastrointestinal surgery. Crit Care Med. 1997;25:1994–2000.
Mokart D, Textoris J, Chow-Chine L, Braun JP, Sannini A, Turrini O, et al. HLA-DR and B7-2 (CD86) monocyte expressions after major cancer surgery: profile in sepsis. Minerva Anestesiol. 2011;77:522–7.
Handy JM, Scott AJ, Cross AM, Sinha P, O’Dea KP, Takata M. HLA-DR expression and differential trafficking of monocyte subset following low to intermediate risk surgery. Anaesthesia. 2010;65:27–35.
Wu Z, Kong X, Zhang T, Ye J, Fang Z, Yang X. Pseudoephedrine/ephedrine shows potent anti-inflammatory activity against TNF-α-mrdiated acute liver failure induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014;724:112–21.