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Metaheuristic optimization algorithms: a comprehensive overview and classification of benchmark test functions

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This review aims to exploit a study on different benchmark test functions used to evaluate the performance of Meta-Heuristic (MH) optimization techniques. The performance of the MH optimization techniques is evaluated with the different sets of mathematical benchmark test functions and various real-world engineering design problems. These benchmark test functions can help to identify the strengths and weaknesses of newly proposed MH optimization techniques. This review paper presents 215 mathematical test functions, including mathematical equations, characteristics, search space and global minima of the objective function and 57 real-world engineering design problems, including mathematical equations, constraints, and boundary conditions of the objective functions carried out from the literature. The MATLAB code references for mathematical benchmark test functions and real-world design problems, including the Congress of Evolutionary Computation (CEC) and Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO) test suite, are presented in this paper. Also, the winners of CEC are highlighted with their reference papers. This paper also comprehensively reviews the literature related to benchmark test functions and real-world engineering design challenges using a bibliometric approach. This bibliometric analysis aims to analyze the number of publications, prolific authors, academic institutions, and country contributions to assess the field's growth and development. This paper will inspire researchers to innovate effective approaches for handling inequality and equality constraints.

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PS and SR have conceived the idea and converted it into the manuscript. The concept was proposed by SR for the review article on “Metaheuristic Optimization Algorithms: A Comprehensive Overview and Classification of Benchmark Test Functions” and also supervised the process. PS investigated and collected all the data, and the draft was written and converted into a review article. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Saravanakumar Raju.

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Sharma, P., Raju, S. Metaheuristic optimization algorithms: a comprehensive overview and classification of benchmark test functions. Soft Comput 28, 3123–3186 (2024).

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