This article studies the pump scheduling optimization problem in water distribution networks (WDNs) through a novel algorithm that combines knowledge learning and deep reinforcement learning. The optimization problem is modeled as a Markov decision process by taking three objectives in pressure management into consideration. Knowledge-assisted learning is incorporated into the reinforcement learning framework (KA-RL) to help evaluate the state value and guide the design of reward function, since the proposed KA-RL framework leverages the notion that historical data of WDNs could be utilized to produce optimal trajectories with respect to parametric variations. The knowledge-assisted proximal policy optimization (KA-PPO) algorithm, which only uses nodal pressure data, is proposed based on the KA-RL framework to address the arbitrary WDN topology and time-varying water demand. The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed algorithm are illustrated by virtue of the 22-node network with two pumps in a pump station. Empirical results demonstrate that KA-PPO works well in practice and compares favorably to Nelder–Mead method.
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This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61633019).
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Xu, J., Wang, H., Rao, J. et al. Zone scheduling optimization of pumps in water distribution networks with deep reinforcement learning and knowledge-assisted learning. Soft Comput 25, 14757–14767 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00500-021-06177-3
- Deep reinforcement learning
- Optimal control
- Knowledge-assisted learning
- Pump schedule
- Water distribution networks