Soft Computing

, Volume 22, Issue 15, pp 4879–4890 | Cite as

Solid waste collection system selection for smart cities based on a type-2 fuzzy multi-criteria decision technique

  • Murside Topaloglu
  • Ferhat YarkinEmail author
  • Tolga Kaya


Energy-efficient and eco-friendly information and communication technologies (ICTs) make increasingly significant contributions to daily life while supporting environmental protection and a sustainable economy. Smart city approach aims to integrate ICTs and physical devices to track, analyze, and optimize the parameters of urban operations and services. The purpose of this study is to suggest a type-2 fuzzy multiple criteria methodology to evaluate and rank alternative waste collection systems in a smart city environment. Type-2 fuzzy sets, whose membership functions are also fuzzy, can constitute a strong theoretical base to techniques which can handle problems with vague components. In this regard, type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS method is applied to a real case study from Eskisehir, Turkey. Considering the current needs of Tepebaşı  district, in which there are currently ongoing smart city projects funded by European Union, four alternative concepts are designed. Each of the concepts is based on a particular ICT. Analysis results show that the drone and the visible light communication-based collection systems are the most appropriate systems for the study area. To track the stability of the results to changes in the attribute weights, a sensitivity analysis is also provided. This study can be considered as one of the first attempts to evaluate the integration of emerging ICTs into smart waste collection systems using type-2 fuzzy sets.


Smart city Municipal solid waste Emerging ICTs Type-2 fuzzy sets Multi-criteria Fuzzy TOPSIS 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityMacka, IstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityMaslak, IstanbulTurkey

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