Soft Computing

, Volume 23, Issue 14, pp 5547–5557 | Cite as

A fuzzy-PSO system for indoor localization based on visible light communications

  • Giovanni PauEmail author
  • Mario Collotta
  • Vincenzo Maniscalco
  • Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo
Methodologies and Application


Indoor positioning systems using visible light communication (VLC) have potential applications in smart buildings, for instance, in developing economical, easy-to-use, widely accessible positioning system based on light-emitting diodes. Thus using VLCs, we introduce a new fuzzy-based system for indoor localization in this paper. The system processes data from transmitters (i.e., anchor nodes) and delivers the calculated position of a receiver. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is then employed to obtain the optimal configuration of the proposed fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs). Specifically, the proposed PSO technique optimizes the membership functions of the FLCs by adjusting their range to achieve the best results regarding the localization reliability. We demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach using experiments.


Visible light communications Indoor localization Received signal strength indication Fuzzy logic controller Particle swarm optimization 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. Baldini A, Ciabattoni L, Felicetti R, Ferracuti F, Longhi S, Monteriu A, Freddi A (2016) A novel RSSI based approach for human indoor localization: the fuzzy discrete multilateration. In: 2016 IEEE 6th international conference on consumer electronics-Berlin (ICCE-Berlin). pp 249–252.
  2. Biagi M, Pergoloni S, Vegni AM (2015) LAST: A framework to localize, access, schedule, and transmit in indoor VLC systems. J Light Technol 33(9):1872–1887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bordel B, Alcarria R, Manso MA, Jara A (2017) Building enhanced environmental traceability solutions: from thing-to-thing communications to generalized cyber-physical systems. J Internet Serv Inf Secur (JISIS) 7(3):17–33Google Scholar
  4. Chen SM, Chiou CH (2015) Multiattribute decision making based on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets, pso techniques, and evidential reasoning methodology. IEEE Trans Fuzzy Syst 23(6):1905–1916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen C, Han Y, Chen Y, Liu KJR (2016) Indoor global positioning system with centimeter accuracy using wi-fi [applications corner]. IEEE Signal Process Mag 33(6):128–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choa YK, Youn JH, Pham N (2008) Performance tests for wireless real-time localization systems to improve mobile robot navigation in various indoor environments. In: Robotics and automation in construction. InTech, pp 355–372Google Scholar
  7. Chou HH, Hsu LY, Hu HT (2013) Turbulent-pso-based fuzzy image filter with no-reference measures for high-density impulse noise. IEEE Trans Cybern 43(1):296–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collotta M, Pau G, Maniscalco V (2017) A fuzzy logic approach by using particle swarm optimization for effective energy management in IWSNS. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 64:9496–9506. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eroglu YS, Guvenc I, Pala N, Yuksel M (2015) Aoa-based localization and tracking in multi-element vlc systems. In: 2015 IEEE 16th annual wireless and microwave technology conference (WAMICON). pp 1–5Google Scholar
  10. Gowdayyanadoddi NS, Broumandan A, Lachapelle G, Curran JT (2015) Indoor GPS positioning using a slowly moving antenna and long coherent integration. In: 2015 International conference on location and GNSS (ICL-GNSS), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  11. Gu Y, Ren F (2015) Energy-efficient indoor localization of smart hand-held devices using bluetooth. IEEE Access 3:1450–1461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hammoud A, Deriaz M, Konstantas D (2016) Robust ultrasound-based room-level localization system using cots components. In: 2016 Fourth international conference on ubiquitous positioning, indoor navigation and location based services (UPINLBS), pp 11–19Google Scholar
  13. Huynh P, Yoo M (2016) VLC-based positioning system for an indoor environment using an image sensor and an accelerometer sensor. Sensors (Switzerland) 16(6):783. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huynh P, Lee J, Yoo M (2015) An indoor environment VLC-based localization algorithm for handset devices. In: 2015 Seventh international conference on ubiquitous and future networks, pp 139–140Google Scholar
  15. Ishida T, Shinotsuka Y, Iyobe M, Uchida N, Sugita K, Shibata Y (2016) Development of a zoo walk navigation system using the positional measurement technology and the wireless communication technology. J Internet Serv Inf Secur (JISIS) 6(4):65–84Google Scholar
  16. Jung SY, Choi CK, Heo S, Lee S, Park CS (2013) Received signal strength ratio based optical wireless indoor localization using light emitting diodes for illumination. pp 63–64,
  17. Jung SY, Hann S, Park CS (2011) TDOA-based optical wireless indoor localization using LED ceiling lamps. IEEE Trans Consum Electron 57(4):1592–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kennedy J, Eberhart C (1995) Particle swarm optimization. In: IEEE international conference on neural networks, pp 1942–1948Google Scholar
  19. Khalajmehrabadi A, Gatsis N, Akopian D (2016) Structured group sparsity: a novel indoor WLAN localization, outlier detection, and radio map interpolation scheme. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 66:6498–6510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li S, Pandharipande A, Willems FMJ (2016b) Unidirectional visible light communication and illumination with LEDs. IEEE Sens J 16(23):8617–8626Google Scholar
  21. Li S, Tan SC, Lee CK, Waffenschmidt E, Hui SY, Tse CK (2016c) A survey, classification, and critical review of light-emitting diode drivers. IEEE Trans Power Electron 31(2):1503–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li D, Huang W, Xu Z (2016a) Flicker free indoor visible light positioning system assisted by a filter and mobile phone camera. In: 2016 IEEE/CIC international conference on communications in China (ICCC), pp 1–5Google Scholar
  23. Lin TH, Ng IH, Lau SY, Chen KM, Huang P (2008) A microscopic examination of an RSSI-signature-based indoor localization system. In: The fifth workshop on embedded networked sensors, pp 2–6Google Scholar
  24. Liu H, Darabi H, Banerjee P, Liu J (2007) Survey of wireless indoor positioning techniques and systems. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern Part C Appl Rev 37(6):1067–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lou PH, Zhang HM, Lang K, Yao MY, Xu ZY (2012) A location-based services system using indoor visible light sources. J Optoelectron Laser 23(12):2298–2303Google Scholar
  26. Luo X, O’Brien WJ, Julien CL (2011) Comparative evaluation of received signal-strength index (RSSI) based indoor localization techniques for construction jobsites. Adv Eng Inform 25(2):355–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Majeed A, Zia T (2017) Multi-layer network architecture for supporting multiple applications in wireless sensor networks. J Wirel Mob Netw Ubiquitous Computi Dependable Appl (JoWUA) 8(3):36–56Google Scholar
  28. Mostafa A, Lampe L (2015) Physical-layer security for MISO visible light communication channels. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 33(9):1806–1818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nah JHY, Parthiban R, Jaward MH (2013) Visible light communications localization using TDOA-based coherent heterodyne detection. In: 2013 IEEE 4th international conference on photonics (ICP), pp 247–249Google Scholar
  30. Narzullaev A, Park Y, Yoo K, Yu J (2011) A fast and accurate calibration algorithm for real-time locating systems based on the received signal strength indication. AEU-Int J Electron Commun 65(4):305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pathak PH, Feng X, Hu P, Mohapatra P (2015) Visible light communication, networking, and sensing: a survey, potential and challenges. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 17(4):2047–2077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pau G, Collotta M, Maniscalco V (2017a) Bluetooth 5 energy management through a fuzzy-PSO solution for mobile devices of internet of things. Energies 10(7):992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pau G, Collotta M, Tirrito S, Caponetto R (2017b) An innovative approach for the management of cross-coupling interference in street lighting networks. J Wirel Mob Netw Ubiquitous Computi Dependable Appl 8(2):44–63Google Scholar
  34. Pergoloni S, Biagi M, Colonnese S, Cusani R, Scarano G (2016) Optimized LEDs footprinting for indoor visible light communication networks. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 28(4):532–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Prince G, Little T (2015) Latency constrained device positioning using a visible light communication two-phase received signal strength-angle of arrival algorithm. In: 2015 international conference on indoor positioning and indoor navigation, IPIN 2015Google Scholar
  36. Prorok A, Martinoli A (2011) A reciprocal sampling algorithm for lightweight distributed multi-robot localization. pp 3241–3247,
  37. Qiu K, Zhang F, Liu M (2016) Let the light guide us: VLC-based localization. IEEE Robot Autom Mag 23(4):174–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sackenreuter B, Hadaschik N, Fabinder M, Mutschler C (2016) Low-complexity PDoA-based localization. In: 2016 international conference on indoor positioning and indoor navigation (IPIN), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  39. Schmid S, Richner T, Mangold S, Gross T (2016) Enlighting: an indoor visible light communication system based on networked light bulbs. In: 2016 13th annual ieee international conference on sensing, communication, and networking, SECON 2016Google Scholar
  40. Sharifi H, Kumar A, Alam F, Arif KM (2016) Indoor localization of mobile robot with visible light communication. In: 2016 12th IEEE/ASME international conference on mechatronic and embedded systems and applications (MESA), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  41. Shin H, Chon Y, Kim Y, Cha H (2015) A participatory service platform for indoor location-based services. IEEE Pervasive Comput 14(1):62–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Song J, Ding W, Yang F, Yang H, Yu B, Zhang H (2015) An indoor broadband broadcasting system based on PLC and VLC. IEEE Trans Broadcast 61(2):299–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tahmasi A, Hematkhah H, Kavian YS (2016) Visible light communication based optical link for data transmission in wireless sensor networks. In: 2016 10th international symposium on communication systems, networks and digital signal processing (CSNDSP), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  44. Ucar S, Turan B, Ergen SC, Ozkasap O, Ergen M (2016) Dimming support for visible light communication in intelligent transportation and traffic system. In: NOMS 2016–2016 IEEE/IFIP network operations and management symposium, pp 1193–1196Google Scholar
  45. Vidal J, Lin CY (2016) Simple and robust localization system using ceiling landmarks and infrared light. In: 2016 12th IEEE international conference on control and automation (ICCA), pp 583–587Google Scholar
  46. Wang SC, Liu YH (2015) A PSO-based fuzzy-controlled searching for the optimal charge pattern of Li-ion batteries. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 62(5):2983–2993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang T, Sekercioglu Y, Neild A, Armstrong J (2013) Position accuracy of time-of-arrival based ranging using visible light with application in indoor localization systems. J Light Technol 31(20):3302–3308. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wang S, Li Y, Sun Y, Li X, Sun N, Zhang X, Yu N (2016) A localization and navigation method with ORB-SLAM for indoor service mobile robots. In: 2016 IEEE international conference on real-time computing and robotics (RCAR), pp 443–447Google Scholar
  49. Yang SH, Kim HS, Son YH, Han SK (2014) Three-dimensional visible light indoor localization using AOA and RSS with multiple optical receivers. J Light Technol 32(14):2480–2485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yassin A, Nasser Y, Awad M, Al-Dubai A, Liu R, Yuen C, Raulefs R (2016) Recent advances in indoor localization: a survey on theoretical approaches and applications. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 19:1327–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yi K, Kim D, Yi K (2015) Development of a localization system based on vlc technique for an indoor environment. J Electr Eng Technol 10(1):436–442. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhang R, Wang J, Wang Z, Xu Z, Zhao C, Hanzo L (2015) Visible light communications in heterogeneous networks: paving the way for user-centric design. IEEE Wirel Commun 22(2):8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhao Y, Liu K, Ma Y, Gao Z, Zang Y, Teng J (2017) Similarity analysis-based indoor localization algorithm with backscatter information of passive UHF RFID tags. IEEE Sens J 17(1):185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and ArchitectureKore University of EnnaEnnaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Information Systems and Cyber Security and Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA

Personalised recommendations