A belief-rule-based model for information fusion with insufficient multi-sensor data and domain knowledge using evolutionary algorithms with operator recommendations

  • Yu Zhou
  • Leilei Chang
  • Bin Qian
Methodologies and Application


Multi-sensor information fusion (IF) has attracted the attention of many researchers in different fields because it can improve modeling accuracy by integrating information gathered from multiple sensors. Traditionally, the inputs of the multi-sensor IF problem are mostly quantitative data. However, to provide a more comprehensive decision support, both quantitative data and experts’ domain knowledge should be synthesized in the IF process. Moreover, there may be insufficient data in many practical conditions, which would make many conventional approaches inapplicable. Because the belief rule base (BRB) has shown advantages in nonlinear modeling with insufficient data and experts’ domain knowledge, a BRB-IF model is proposed for the multi-sensor IF problem. To improve its efficiency, an optimization model and the corresponding optimization algorithm for BRB-IF are proposed. The particle swarm optimization algorithm and differential evolutionary algorithm are tested as the optimization engine to solve the optimization model with the operator recommendation strategy. The efficiency of the proposed BRB-IF is validated by a practical case study of threat level assessment, where a comparison between BRB-IF and the neural network is conducted.


Multi-sensor information fusion Insufficient data Experts’ domain knowledge Belief rule base Operator recommendation 



This study was funded by NSFC under Grants 71601180 and 51665025, Applied Basic Research Foundation of Yunnan Province (No. 2015FB136).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Material Management and UAV Engineering AcademyAir Force Engineering UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Department of ManagementHigh-Tech Institute of Xi’anXi’anChina
  3. 3.Department of AutomationKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina

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