Soft Computing

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 1731–1747 | Cite as

Variations of cohort intelligence

  • N. S. Patankar
  • Anand J. Kulkarni


A cohort refers to a group of candidates interacting and competing with one another. The basic idea of cohort is inspired from the social tendency of following/learning from one another and adapting the qualities of certain candidate. Based upon this approach, seven variations of cohort intelligence (CI) are presented in this paper. The seven variations of CI are: follow best, follow better, follow worst, follow itself, follow median, follow roulette wheel selection and alienate-and-random selection. The proposed variations are tested on seven multimodal and three uni-modal unconstrained test functions, and the numerical results are analyzed to decide which variation works best for a particular type of problem. The performance of these variations is compared with some well-known algorithms namely PSO, CMAES, ABC, JDE, CLPSO, SADE and BSA. The analysis of variations gives very important insight about the strategy that should be followed while working in a cohort. The variations proposed may provide insight into variegated applicability domain of the CI methodology. The choice of the right variation may also further open doors for CI to solve different real-world problems.


Cohort intelligence Self-supervised learning Socio-inspired optimization Unconstrained test problems 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Operations ResearchNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Odette School of BusinessUniversity of WindsorWindsorCanada
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Symbiosis Institute of TechnologySymbiosis International UniversityPuneIndia

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